A condition of unknown origin that involves the throid gland and causes the soft tissues surrounding the globe to swell. (proptosis)
A condition in which misalignment of the eyes is present even when the eyes are uncovered (cover uncover test)
A misalignment of the eyes that may cause vision to be disturbed; occurs when the extraocular muscles do not work in a coordinated manner
A serious ocular bacterial infection with inflammation of the vitreous and adjacent tissues
The use of a contact lens, eyeglasses, or an intraocular lens for more normal vision in an aphakic patient
The progressive loss of accommodative ability of the lens, due to the natural processes of aging
A rare disease that occurs in infants; due to a malformation of the anterior chamber angle
Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma
A form of glaucoma in which the natural age-related increase in the size of the lens blocks the flow of aqueous through the pupil, gradually bowing the iris forward until it's outer edge blocks the aqueous outflow channels in the anterior chamber angle
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
A form of glaucoma in which the pressure inside the eye is elevated because of increased resistance to aqueous drainage in the outflow channels; accounts for 60% to 90% of all adult glaucomas
The height and breadth of space seen by the eye when the gaze is fixated straight ahead
An eye disease in which the intraocular pressure is high enough to cause damage to the optic nerve, resulting in visual loss; caused by impaired drainage of the aqueous fluid out of the eye
A rare degenerative corneal disease in which the center of the cornea thins and assumes the shape of a cone, seriously affecting vision
A common degenerative change in which the outer edge of the cornea gradually becomes opaque, generally in both eyes; affects people over the age of 50
Branch-shaped, such as the corneal ulcers seen after infection with the herpes simplex virus
Herpes Simplex Virus
In ophthalmology, a type of virus that infects the cornea, producing branch-like ulcers (dendritic keratitis)
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac; usually caused by a blockage or obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct
Literally, freckles; common tumors involving the bulbar conjunctiva and appear as yellowish-pink or brown areas on the conjunctiva or skin
A small, benign, yellow-white mass of degenerated tissue beneath the bulbar conjunctiva, just nasal or temporal to the limbus
The delivery system by which a drug is applied directly to the surface of the eye or surrounding skin
A thick fluid containing mucus and puss; symptomatic of bacterial infection
Basal cell Carcinoma
The most common malignant lid tumor; has a characteristic appearance of a pit surrounded by raised "pearly" edges
A condition in which the globe is not completely covered when the lids are closed; may be caused by facial-nerve paralysis or by an enlarged or protruding eye
The third cranial nerve, which supplies the impulses that activate the superior, medial, and inferior rectus muscles, the inferior oblique muscle, and the orbicularis oculi muscle
Refers to any process in which the structure or function of body tissues gradually deteriorates
Any tumor that is cancerous and has the potential of spreading to other parts of the body
The process by which cancerous cells move to other parts of the body and produce new tumors
A diffuse infection of tissues in the orbit, causing grossly swollen eyelids and red eye, sometimes without proptosis
A microorganism smaller than the smallest bacterium that has no cellular structure and can cause infectious disease
A multicelled microorganism that differs from a bacterium in that it has a more complex structure; includes yeast and molds. Some can live inside the body and cause infection
Single celled microorganisms, widely dispersed in nature; some of these are capable of causing disease in humans
A local protective tissue response to infection, in which specialized cells move to the affected area to destroy the injurious agent, while other cells release fluid to dilute any toxic substances produced by the infectious agent and wall off both the offender and the damaged tissue
The invasion and multiplication of harmful microorganisms in the body tissues: a local bacterial or fungal infection begins in the tissues immediately surrounding the microorganisms point of entry; if unchecked, the infection may spread to surrounding tissues; thereby becoming diffuse
The body's response to infection, in which antibodies are manufactured to neutralize the infecting microorganisms and perhaps prevent recurrence of the infection
The physical and chemical processes by which the body converts food into energy and new body tissues
A condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, the hormone required for the metabolism of sugar
A surgical procedure for correcting retinal detachment by injecting gas into the eye
A swelling of the optic disc with engorged blood vessels: caused by increased fluid pressure within the skull
Age Related Macular Degeneration
A disease in which sensory cells of the macula degenerates, resulting in the loss of central vision
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
A virus that causes a deficiency of the immune system, making the patient susceptible to a variety of infections of various tissues, including the retina
A progression of pathologic changes in the retina; produced by long-standing diabetes mellitus
A surgical procedure for correcting a retinal detachment that involves placing a block of silicone or other material in the eye to indent the wall
The eyes continually shift in a rhythmic side to side or up and down motion and then snap back to normal position
The tendency of a child's brain to suppress the images from the deviating eye
The tendency of the eyes to deviate; usually prevented by the brains effort to fuse the two images (cross cover test)
10 mechanisms of disease & injury
Invasion & multiplication of foreign microorganisms within tissue.
Create competition for nutrients & release toxic substances.
Protective tissue response to infection or injury. Produces pain, redness, heat, & swelling.
Can result in loss of function in affected organ.
Immune reaction to foreign substances, infection.
Symptoms: Runny nose, watery eyes, skin rash, difficulty breathing, death.
a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader
Severe reduction of blood supply caused by occluded or broken blood vessels.
Enzymes & hormones are not produced in the proper quantity.
i.e. hyperthyroidism, Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus
Faulty development of organs/tissues can result in their inability to function properly.
Diffuse infection of the tissues of the orbit.
Can cause swelling & redness.
Symptoms incl decreased vision, ocular pain made worse by eye movement.
Can be deadly due to close proximity w brain.
breakage of floor or walls of orbit due to blunt force.
globe may fall into fracture and requires reconstruction of orbit as well as repair to injured globe.
deviation is the same in all fields of gaze.
due to imbalanced muscle tension.
may be congenital.
strabismus due to loss of muscle elasticity from scarring of long-term inflammation.
i.e. Grave's disease
deviation of eye that can only be elicited by covering one eye so the brain can no longer fuse the images.
suppressed vision of the misaligned eye.
Most common in children.
can be corrected after surgery w a patch or blurring drops in dominant ey to force amblyopic eye to work.
Eyes drift off intended target then jerk back into position.
Indicates problem w brain function, not muscles.
Bacterial infection of eyelash follicles.
Treated w hot moist packs & antibiotic drops.
May need to be drained.
Chronic, low-grade infection.
Red & inflamed lid margins w crust along lashes.
Treated w lid cleaning, topical antibiotics, oral antibiotics.
Are recurring & predisposes one to styes & chalazions.
Drooping of upper eyelid.
Due to partial paralysis of oculomotor nerve when congenital
Or due to weekness of levator palpebrae or it's tendon as a result of disease or trauma.
Lid margin turns inward of causing trichiasis.
caused by over activitity of orbicularis oculi muscle.
Basal cell carcinoma
Most common malignant tumor.
Signature pit surrounded by raised, pearly edges.
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac caused by blockage of nasolacrimal duct.
Tearing w pain, swelling, tenderness.
dryness / inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva due to inadequate tear production. usually the result of an immune disorder.
Treat w cyclosporine eye drops.
"pink eye" recognized by a mucopurulent discharge
lasts 2 weeks untreated, antibiotics can be helpful.
produces a watery discharge & tiny bumps on the conjunctival surface. sometimes involves the cornea & sever photophobia.
lasts 1-3 weeks untreated, although some forms may require a nonspecific treatment to relieve symptoms.
Allergic or Vernal (springtime) conjunctivitis
causes tearing, itching, redness, & swelling.
treated with topical mast cell stabilizer/antihistamine drops.
burst blood vessel in the conjuctiva. occurs after violent sneezing or coughing.
no treatment, disappears after a few weeks.
small, benign, yellow-white, mass of degenerated tissue of the bulbar conjunctiva.
does not overlap the cornea.
may cause minor irritation but will not threaten vision.
wedge-shaped growth of the bulbar conjunctiva
will grow over cornea and cause irritation, chronic redness, foreign-body sensation, blurred vision, and photophobia.
can be surgically removed but may recur.
pterygium & pinguecula are thought to be caused by what?
long term exposure to ultra violet light.
bacterial or fungal infection of a corneal lesion.
corneal epithelium loses transparency.
bulbar conjunctiva appears red
Symptoms: moderate to severe pain, photophobia, excessive flow of tears
Treated with antibiotics specific to the causative microorganism. May leave a scar/decreased vision.
Herpes simplex virus
Signature dendritic (branch shaped) ulcer on cornea.
Treated with antiviral medication, scraping of corneal epithelium.
Tend to recur which can lead to sever scarring or thinning which may require corneal transplant.
degenerative opacification of outer edge of cornea.
occurs after age 50
vision is unaffected, no treatment needed
degenerative thinning of cornea that creates a cone shape. seriously affects vision.
Treated with contact lenses in mild cases and corneal transplant in severe cases.
inflammation of the sclera. occurs in patients with autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis)