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Graves Disease

A condition of unknown origin that involves the throid gland and causes the soft tissues surrounding the globe to swell. (proptosis)

Exo Deviation

The outward deviation of eye


A condition in which misalignment of the eyes is present even when the eyes are uncovered (cover uncover test)


The outward deviation of the eye that is present only one when eye is covered


The outward deviation of the eye in which the eyes are misaligned even when uncovered


The inward deviation of the eye where the eyes are misaligned even when uncovered


The inward deviation of the eye that is present only when one is covered

Eso Deviation

The inward deviation of eye


A set of signs or symptoms that is characteristic of a specific condition or disease


A misalignment of the eyes that may cause vision to be disturbed; occurs when the extraocular muscles do not work in a coordinated manner


Refers to any disease process or effect that is present from birth


A serious ocular bacterial infection with inflammation of the vitreous and adjacent tissues


the use of an intraocular lens to correct the vision of an aphakic patient

Aphakic Correction

The use of a contact lens, eyeglasses, or an intraocular lens for more normal vision in an aphakic patient


Absence of the lens, usually because of cataract extraction


And opacified or clouded lens


The progressive loss of accommodative ability of the lens, due to the natural processes of aging


A condition in which the pupils are of unequal size

Rubeosis Iridis

A condition in which the iris develops a reddish color due to neovascularization


The abnormal growth of new blood vessels


Inflammation of the iris

Congenital Glaucoma

A rare disease that occurs in infants; due to a malformation of the anterior chamber angle

Secondary Glaucoma

Glaucoma that occurs secondary to another primary disease

Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma

A form of glaucoma in which the natural age-related increase in the size of the lens blocks the flow of aqueous through the pupil, gradually bowing the iris forward until it's outer edge blocks the aqueous outflow channels in the anterior chamber angle

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

A form of glaucoma in which the pressure inside the eye is elevated because of increased resistance to aqueous drainage in the outflow channels; accounts for 60% to 90% of all adult glaucomas

Visual Field

The height and breadth of space seen by the eye when the gaze is fixated straight ahead

Intraocular Pressure

Fluid pressure within the eye


An eye disease in which the intraocular pressure is high enough to cause damage to the optic nerve, resulting in visual loss; caused by impaired drainage of the aqueous fluid out of the eye


The pooling of blood in the anterior chamber as a result of trauma or certain diseases


Inflammation of the surface layer of the sclera


Inflammation of the sclera


A rare degenerative corneal disease in which the center of the cornea thins and assumes the shape of a cone, seriously affecting vision

Arcus Senilis

A common degenerative change in which the outer edge of the cornea gradually becomes opaque, generally in both eyes; affects people over the age of 50


Branch-shaped, such as the corneal ulcers seen after infection with the herpes simplex virus

Herpes Simplex Virus

In ophthalmology, a type of virus that infects the cornea, producing branch-like ulcers (dendritic keratitis)


An accumulation of puss in the anterior chamber


A cut


A scratch


Inflammation of the cornea

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

Dry eye


Inflammation of the lacrimal sac; usually caused by a blockage or obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct


Literally, freckles; common tumors involving the bulbar conjunctiva and appear as yellowish-pink or brown areas on the conjunctiva or skin


A wedge-shaped growth on the bulbar conjunctiva


A small, benign, yellow-white mass of degenerated tissue beneath the bulbar conjunctiva, just nasal or temporal to the limbus

Ophthalmia Neonatorum

Conjunctivitis in the newborn

Topical Application

The delivery system by which a drug is applied directly to the surface of the eye or surrounding skin

Mucopurulent Discharge

A thick fluid containing mucus and puss; symptomatic of bacterial infection

Basal cell Carcinoma

The most common malignant lid tumor; has a characteristic appearance of a pit surrounded by raised "pearly" edges


A condition in which the globe is not completely covered when the lids are closed; may be caused by facial-nerve paralysis or by an enlarged or protruding eye

Oculomotor Nerve

The third cranial nerve, which supplies the impulses that activate the superior, medial, and inferior rectus muscles, the inferior oblique muscle, and the orbicularis oculi muscle

Retinal Detachment

The separation of the sensory layer from the pigment layer of the retina


Freezing by surgical means


A firm collection of a specific kind of inflammatory cells


A cut produced by a sharp instrument


Refers to any process in which the structure or function of body tissues gradually deteriorates


A trait that is inherited from either or both parents


A new growth of different or abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or wart


Any tumor that is not dangerous to the well-being of the individual


Any tumor that is cancerous and has the potential of spreading to other parts of the body


The process by which cancerous cells move to other parts of the body and produce new tumors


A sudden wound or injury to the body, often from outside the body


A poison


Determination of a medical condition

Orbital Cellulitis

A diffuse infection of tissues in the orbit, causing grossly swollen eyelids and red eye, sometimes without proptosis


A microorganism smaller than the smallest bacterium that has no cellular structure and can cause infectious disease


A multicelled microorganism that differs from a bacterium in that it has a more complex structure; includes yeast and molds. Some can live inside the body and cause infection


Single celled microorganisms, widely dispersed in nature; some of these are capable of causing disease in humans


An extremely small life form invisible to the unaided eye (also called Microbe)


Damage to or destruction of cells that compose a tissue, organ, or system


Literally; the study of the cause of the disease;
informally; the causes themselves




A bony cavern of the skull that contain air and connect with the nasal passages

Blowout Fracture

An injury due to blunt trauma, in which were orbital bones are broken


A condition that has persisted for sometime


A condition that flares up suddenly and persist for only a short time


A local protective tissue response to infection, in which specialized cells move to the affected area to destroy the injurious agent, while other cells release fluid to dilute any toxic substances produced by the infectious agent and wall off both the offender and the damaged tissue


The invasion and multiplication of harmful microorganisms in the body tissues: a local bacterial or fungal infection begins in the tissues immediately surrounding the microorganisms point of entry; if unchecked, the infection may spread to surrounding tissues; thereby becoming diffuse

Immune Reaction

The body's response to infection, in which antibodies are manufactured to neutralize the infecting microorganisms and perhaps prevent recurrence of the infection




A condition in which the supply of blood to a part of the body is severely reduced


The type of chemical that the body manufactures to neutralize an infecting organism


A loss of oxygen


The physical and chemical processes by which the body converts food into energy and new body tissues

Diabetes Mellitus

A condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, the hormone required for the metabolism of sugar


A hormone the body uses to metabolize sugar


Surgical welding with laser light beams


A surgical procedure for correcting retinal detachment by injecting gas into the eye

Optic Neuritis

Inflammation of the optic nerve; can produce a sudden but reversible loss of sight


A swelling of the optic disc with engorged blood vessels: caused by increased fluid pressure within the skull

Retinitis Pigmentosa

A hereditary, progressive retinal degeneration that may lead to blindness

Age Related Macular Degeneration

A disease in which sensory cells of the macula degenerates, resulting in the loss of central vision

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

A virus that causes a deficiency of the immune system, making the patient susceptible to a variety of infections of various tissues, including the retina

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

A viral infection characterized by a compromised immune system

Diabetic Retinopathy

A progression of pathologic changes in the retina; produced by long-standing diabetes mellitus

Scleral Buckle

A surgical procedure for correcting a retinal detachment that involves placing a block of silicone or other material in the eye to indent the wall


A localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue


A change in vision, pain, or other subjective effect that indicates a disease process

Chemical Trauma

An injury caused by a chemical, such as an acid or an alkali

Thermal Trauma

An injury that results in the burning or freezing of tissues


The eyes continually shift in a rhythmic side to side or up and down motion and then snap back to normal position

Strabismic Amblyopia

The tendency of a child's brain to suppress the images from the deviating eye


The ability to perceive depth visually in three dimensions


Double vision




The tendency of the eyes to deviate; usually prevented by the brains effort to fuse the two images (cross cover test)


Swelling caused a large amount of fluid in a part of the body


Abnormal tissue or a break in a normal tissue


Accumulation of blood from a broken blood vessel

10 mechanisms of disease & injury


Infectious Process

Invasion & multiplication of foreign microorganisms within tissue.
Create competition for nutrients & release toxic substances.

Inflammatory Process

Protective tissue response to infection or injury. Produces pain, redness, heat, & swelling.
Can result in loss of function in affected organ.
Suffix: "itis"

Allergic Process

Immune reaction to foreign substances, infection.
Symptoms: Runny nose, watery eyes, skin rash, difficulty breathing, death.

Immune Reaction

a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen

Allergic reaction

occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader

Ischemic Process

Severe reduction of blood supply caused by occluded or broken blood vessels.
Causes hypoxia.


Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction.


Loss of oxygen to cells

Metabolic Process

Enzymes & hormones are not produced in the proper quantity.
i.e. hyperthyroidism, Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus

Congenital Process

Disease, malfunction, or malformation present at birth.

Developmental Process

Faulty development of organs/tissues can result in their inability to function properly.

Degenerative Process

Breakdown of tissue due to aging, genetics, infection, or inflammation.

Neoplastic Process

Growths such as tumors & warts.
May be benign or malignant.
May metastasize.


an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose


Protrusion of the eyeball from the socket

Unilateral proptosis

Protrusion of one eyeball from socket.
May indicate tumor.


swelling from large amounts of fluid
may result in proptosis

Orbital cellulitis

Diffuse infection of the tissues of the orbit.
Can cause swelling & redness.
Symptoms incl decreased vision, ocular pain made worse by eye movement.
Can be deadly due to close proximity w brain.

blowout fracture

breakage of floor or walls of orbit due to blunt force.
globe may fall into fracture and requires reconstruction of orbit as well as repair to injured globe.

comitant strabismus

deviation is the same in all fields of gaze.
due to imbalanced muscle tension.
may be congenital.


misalignment of eyes is different at different gaze directions.

paralytic strabismus

strabismus due to nerve paralysis.

restrictive strabismus

strabismus due to loss of muscle elasticity from scarring of long-term inflammation.
i.e. Grave's disease

exo deviation

outward deviation

eso deviation

inward deviation


eye movement or shifting that is readily observable


deviation of eye that can only be elicited by covering one eye so the brain can no longer fuse the images.


outward deviation that is readily observable


inward deviation that is only visible on occasion


three-dimensional vision

strabismis amblyopia

suppressed vision of the misaligned eye.
Most common in children.
can be corrected after surgery w a patch or blurring drops in dominant ey to force amblyopic eye to work.


Eyes drift off intended target then jerk back into position.
Indicates problem w brain function, not muscles.

external hordeolum

Bacterial infection of eyelash follicles.
Treated w hot moist packs & antibiotic drops.
May need to be drained.

internal hordeolum

Bacterial infection of meibomian gland.
Located on inner eyelid.


nontender, solid lump that may remain after a meibomian infection.


Chronic, low-grade infection.
Red & inflamed lid margins w crust along lashes.
Treated w lid cleaning, topical antibiotics, oral antibiotics.
Are recurring & predisposes one to styes & chalazions.


Drooping of upper eyelid.
Due to partial paralysis of oculomotor nerve when congenital
Or due to weekness of levator palpebrae or it's tendon as a result of disease or trauma.


turning of eyelid outward


Lid margin turns inward of causing trichiasis.
caused by over activitity of orbicularis oculi muscle.


Eyelashes rub against the globe & can tear cornea.

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