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174 terms

Disorders of the Eye

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Graves Disease
A condition of unknown origin that involves the throid gland and causes the soft tissues surrounding the globe to swell. (proptosis)
Exo Deviation
The outward deviation of eye
Tropia
A condition in which misalignment of the eyes is present even when the eyes are uncovered (cover uncover test)
Exophoria
The outward deviation of the eye that is present only one when eye is covered
Exotropia
The outward deviation of the eye in which the eyes are misaligned even when uncovered
Esotropia
The inward deviation of the eye where the eyes are misaligned even when uncovered
Esophoria
The inward deviation of the eye that is present only when one is covered
Eso Deviation
The inward deviation of eye
Syndrome
A set of signs or symptoms that is characteristic of a specific condition or disease
Strabismus
A misalignment of the eyes that may cause vision to be disturbed; occurs when the extraocular muscles do not work in a coordinated manner
Congenital
Refers to any disease process or effect that is present from birth
Endophthalmitis
A serious ocular bacterial infection with inflammation of the vitreous and adjacent tissues
Pseudophakia
the use of an intraocular lens to correct the vision of an aphakic patient
Aphakic Correction
The use of a contact lens, eyeglasses, or an intraocular lens for more normal vision in an aphakic patient
Aphakia
Absence of the lens, usually because of cataract extraction
Cataract
And opacified or clouded lens
Presbyopia
The progressive loss of accommodative ability of the lens, due to the natural processes of aging
Anisocoria
A condition in which the pupils are of unequal size
Rubeosis Iridis
A condition in which the iris develops a reddish color due to neovascularization
Neovascularization
The abnormal growth of new blood vessels
Iritis
Inflammation of the iris
Congenital Glaucoma
A rare disease that occurs in infants; due to a malformation of the anterior chamber angle
Secondary Glaucoma
Glaucoma that occurs secondary to another primary disease
Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma
A form of glaucoma in which the natural age-related increase in the size of the lens blocks the flow of aqueous through the pupil, gradually bowing the iris forward until it's outer edge blocks the aqueous outflow channels in the anterior chamber angle
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
A form of glaucoma in which the pressure inside the eye is elevated because of increased resistance to aqueous drainage in the outflow channels; accounts for 60% to 90% of all adult glaucomas
Visual Field
The height and breadth of space seen by the eye when the gaze is fixated straight ahead
Intraocular Pressure
Fluid pressure within the eye
Glaucoma
An eye disease in which the intraocular pressure is high enough to cause damage to the optic nerve, resulting in visual loss; caused by impaired drainage of the aqueous fluid out of the eye
Hyphema
The pooling of blood in the anterior chamber as a result of trauma or certain diseases
Episcleritis
Inflammation of the surface layer of the sclera
Scleritis
Inflammation of the sclera
Keratoconus
A rare degenerative corneal disease in which the center of the cornea thins and assumes the shape of a cone, seriously affecting vision
Arcus Senilis
A common degenerative change in which the outer edge of the cornea gradually becomes opaque, generally in both eyes; affects people over the age of 50
Dendritic
Branch-shaped, such as the corneal ulcers seen after infection with the herpes simplex virus
Herpes Simplex Virus
In ophthalmology, a type of virus that infects the cornea, producing branch-like ulcers (dendritic keratitis)
Hypopyon
An accumulation of puss in the anterior chamber
Laceration
A cut
Abrasion
A scratch
Keratitis
Inflammation of the cornea
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Dry eye
Dacryocystitis
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac; usually caused by a blockage or obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct
Nevi
Literally, freckles; common tumors involving the bulbar conjunctiva and appear as yellowish-pink or brown areas on the conjunctiva or skin
Pterygium
A wedge-shaped growth on the bulbar conjunctiva
Pinguecula
A small, benign, yellow-white mass of degenerated tissue beneath the bulbar conjunctiva, just nasal or temporal to the limbus
Ophthalmia Neonatorum
Conjunctivitis in the newborn
Topical Application
The delivery system by which a drug is applied directly to the surface of the eye or surrounding skin
Mucopurulent Discharge
A thick fluid containing mucus and puss; symptomatic of bacterial infection
Basal cell Carcinoma
The most common malignant lid tumor; has a characteristic appearance of a pit surrounded by raised "pearly" edges
Lagophthalmos
A condition in which the globe is not completely covered when the lids are closed; may be caused by facial-nerve paralysis or by an enlarged or protruding eye
Oculomotor Nerve
The third cranial nerve, which supplies the impulses that activate the superior, medial, and inferior rectus muscles, the inferior oblique muscle, and the orbicularis oculi muscle
Retinal Detachment
The separation of the sensory layer from the pigment layer of the retina
Cryopexy
Freezing by surgical means
Granuloma
A firm collection of a specific kind of inflammatory cells
Incision
A cut produced by a sharp instrument
Degenerative
Refers to any process in which the structure or function of body tissues gradually deteriorates
Genetic
A trait that is inherited from either or both parents
Neoplasm
A new growth of different or abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or wart
Benign
Any tumor that is not dangerous to the well-being of the individual
Malignant
Any tumor that is cancerous and has the potential of spreading to other parts of the body
Metastasize
The process by which cancerous cells move to other parts of the body and produce new tumors
Trauma
A sudden wound or injury to the body, often from outside the body
Toxin
A poison
Diagnosis
Determination of a medical condition
Orbital Cellulitis
A diffuse infection of tissues in the orbit, causing grossly swollen eyelids and red eye, sometimes without proptosis
Virus
A microorganism smaller than the smallest bacterium that has no cellular structure and can cause infectious disease
Fungus
A multicelled microorganism that differs from a bacterium in that it has a more complex structure; includes yeast and molds. Some can live inside the body and cause infection
Bacteria
Single celled microorganisms, widely dispersed in nature; some of these are capable of causing disease in humans
Microorganism
An extremely small life form invisible to the unaided eye (also called Microbe)
Injury
Damage to or destruction of cells that compose a tissue, organ, or system
Etiology
Literally; the study of the cause of the disease;
informally; the causes themselves
Pathologic
Abnormal
Sinuses
A bony cavern of the skull that contain air and connect with the nasal passages
Blowout Fracture
An injury due to blunt trauma, in which were orbital bones are broken
Chronic
A condition that has persisted for sometime
Acute
A condition that flares up suddenly and persist for only a short time
Inflammation
A local protective tissue response to infection, in which specialized cells move to the affected area to destroy the injurious agent, while other cells release fluid to dilute any toxic substances produced by the infectious agent and wall off both the offender and the damaged tissue
Infection
The invasion and multiplication of harmful microorganisms in the body tissues: a local bacterial or fungal infection begins in the tissues immediately surrounding the microorganisms point of entry; if unchecked, the infection may spread to surrounding tissues; thereby becoming diffuse
Immune Reaction
The body's response to infection, in which antibodies are manufactured to neutralize the infecting microorganisms and perhaps prevent recurrence of the infection
Occlusion
Blockage
Ischemia
A condition in which the supply of blood to a part of the body is severely reduced
Antibodies
The type of chemical that the body manufactures to neutralize an infecting organism
Hypoxia
A loss of oxygen
Metabolism
The physical and chemical processes by which the body converts food into energy and new body tissues
Diabetes Mellitus
A condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, the hormone required for the metabolism of sugar
Insulin
A hormone the body uses to metabolize sugar
Photocoagulation
Surgical welding with laser light beams
Pneumatoretinopexy
A surgical procedure for correcting retinal detachment by injecting gas into the eye
Optic Neuritis
Inflammation of the optic nerve; can produce a sudden but reversible loss of sight
Papilledema
A swelling of the optic disc with engorged blood vessels: caused by increased fluid pressure within the skull
Retinitis Pigmentosa
A hereditary, progressive retinal degeneration that may lead to blindness
Age Related Macular Degeneration
A disease in which sensory cells of the macula degenerates, resulting in the loss of central vision
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
A virus that causes a deficiency of the immune system, making the patient susceptible to a variety of infections of various tissues, including the retina
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
A viral infection characterized by a compromised immune system
Diabetic Retinopathy
A progression of pathologic changes in the retina; produced by long-standing diabetes mellitus
Scleral Buckle
A surgical procedure for correcting a retinal detachment that involves placing a block of silicone or other material in the eye to indent the wall
Abscess
A localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
Symptom
A change in vision, pain, or other subjective effect that indicates a disease process
Chemical Trauma
An injury caused by a chemical, such as an acid or an alkali
Thermal Trauma
An injury that results in the burning or freezing of tissues
Nystagmus
The eyes continually shift in a rhythmic side to side or up and down motion and then snap back to normal position
Strabismic Amblyopia
The tendency of a child's brain to suppress the images from the deviating eye
Stereopsis
The ability to perceive depth visually in three dimensions
Diplopia
Double vision
Palsy
Paralysis
Phoria
The tendency of the eyes to deviate; usually prevented by the brains effort to fuse the two images (cross cover test)
Edema
Swelling caused a large amount of fluid in a part of the body
Lesion
Abnormal tissue or a break in a normal tissue
Hemorrhage
Accumulation of blood from a broken blood vessel
10 mechanisms of disease & injury
Infectious
Inflammatory
Allergic
Ischemic
Metabolic
Congenital
Developmental
Degenerative
Neoplastic
Traumatic
Infectious Process
Invasion & multiplication of foreign microorganisms within tissue.
Create competition for nutrients & release toxic substances.
Inflammatory Process
Protective tissue response to infection or injury. Produces pain, redness, heat, & swelling.
Can result in loss of function in affected organ.
Suffix: "itis"
Allergic Process
Immune reaction to foreign substances, infection.
Symptoms: Runny nose, watery eyes, skin rash, difficulty breathing, death.
Immune Reaction
a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
Allergic reaction
occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen such as pollen, food, or animal dander as if it were a dangerous invader
Ischemic Process
Severe reduction of blood supply caused by occluded or broken blood vessels.
Causes hypoxia.
Ischemia
Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction.
Hypoxia
Loss of oxygen to cells
Metabolic Process
Enzymes & hormones are not produced in the proper quantity.
i.e. hyperthyroidism, Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus
Congenital Process
Disease, malfunction, or malformation present at birth.
Developmental Process
Faulty development of organs/tissues can result in their inability to function properly.
Degenerative Process
Breakdown of tissue due to aging, genetics, infection, or inflammation.
Neoplastic Process
Growths such as tumors & warts.
May be benign or malignant.
May metastasize.
Neoplasm
an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
Exophthalmos
Proptosis
Protrusion of the eyeball from the socket
Unilateral proptosis
Protrusion of one eyeball from socket.
May indicate tumor.
Edema
swelling from large amounts of fluid
may result in proptosis
Orbital cellulitis
Diffuse infection of the tissues of the orbit.
Can cause swelling & redness.
Symptoms incl decreased vision, ocular pain made worse by eye movement.
Can be deadly due to close proximity w brain.
blowout fracture
breakage of floor or walls of orbit due to blunt force.
globe may fall into fracture and requires reconstruction of orbit as well as repair to injured globe.
comitant strabismus
deviation is the same in all fields of gaze.
due to imbalanced muscle tension.
may be congenital.
non-comitant
incomitant
misalignment of eyes is different at different gaze directions.
paralytic strabismus
strabismus due to nerve paralysis.
restrictive strabismus
strabismus due to loss of muscle elasticity from scarring of long-term inflammation.
i.e. Grave's disease
exo deviation
outward deviation
eso deviation
inward deviation
tropia
eye movement or shifting that is readily observable
phoria
deviation of eye that can only be elicited by covering one eye so the brain can no longer fuse the images.
exotropia
outward deviation that is readily observable
esophoria
inward deviation that is only visible on occasion
stereopsis
three-dimensional vision
strabismis amblyopia
suppressed vision of the misaligned eye.
Most common in children.
can be corrected after surgery w a patch or blurring drops in dominant ey to force amblyopic eye to work.
Nystagmus
Eyes drift off intended target then jerk back into position.
Indicates problem w brain function, not muscles.
external hordeolum
stye
Bacterial infection of eyelash follicles.
Treated w hot moist packs & antibiotic drops.
May need to be drained.
internal hordeolum
Bacterial infection of meibomian gland.
Located on inner eyelid.
chalazion
nontender, solid lump that may remain after a meibomian infection.
blepharitis
Chronic, low-grade infection.
Red & inflamed lid margins w crust along lashes.
Treated w lid cleaning, topical antibiotics, oral antibiotics.
Are recurring & predisposes one to styes & chalazions.
Ptosis
Drooping of upper eyelid.
Due to partial paralysis of oculomotor nerve when congenital
Or due to weekness of levator palpebrae or it's tendon as a result of disease or trauma.
Ectropion
turning of eyelid outward
Entropion
Lid margin turns inward of causing trichiasis.
caused by over activitity of orbicularis oculi muscle.
Trichiasis
Eyelashes rub against the globe & can tear cornea.
Lagophthalmos
eyelids do not completely cover globe
Basal cell carcinoma
Most common malignant tumor.
Signature pit surrounded by raised, pearly edges.
Dacryocystitis
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac caused by blockage of nasolacrimal duct.
Tearing w pain, swelling, tenderness.
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
dryness / inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva due to inadequate tear production. usually the result of an immune disorder.
Treat w cyclosporine eye drops.
cyclosporine
artificial tear drops
Conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva
Bacterial conjunctivitis
"pink eye" recognized by a mucopurulent discharge
lasts 2 weeks untreated, antibiotics can be helpful.
Viral conjunctivitis
produces a watery discharge & tiny bumps on the conjunctival surface. sometimes involves the cornea & sever photophobia.
lasts 1-3 weeks untreated, although some forms may require a nonspecific treatment to relieve symptoms.
Allergic or Vernal (springtime) conjunctivitis
causes tearing, itching, redness, & swelling.
treated with topical mast cell stabilizer/antihistamine drops.
Ophthalmia Neonatorum
conjunctivitis in the newborn
subconjunctival hemorrhage
burst blood vessel in the conjuctiva. occurs after violent sneezing or coughing.
no treatment, disappears after a few weeks.
pinguecula
small, benign, yellow-white, mass of degenerated tissue of the bulbar conjunctiva.
does not overlap the cornea.
may cause minor irritation but will not threaten vision.
pterygium
wedge-shaped growth of the bulbar conjunctiva
will grow over cornea and cause irritation, chronic redness, foreign-body sensation, blurred vision, and photophobia.
can be surgically removed but may recur.
nevi
freckles on the bulbar conjuctiva
pterygium & pinguecula are thought to be caused by what?
long term exposure to ultra violet light.
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea
corneal ulcer
bacterial or fungal infection of a corneal lesion.
corneal epithelium loses transparency.
bulbar conjunctiva appears red
Symptoms: moderate to severe pain, photophobia, excessive flow of tears
Treated with antibiotics specific to the causative microorganism. May leave a scar/decreased vision.
hypopyon
accumulation of pus in the anterior chamber of eye. associated with corneal ulcer.
Herpes simplex virus
Signature dendritic (branch shaped) ulcer on cornea.
Treated with antiviral medication, scraping of corneal epithelium.
Tend to recur which can lead to sever scarring or thinning which may require corneal transplant.
Arcus senilis
degenerative opacification of outer edge of cornea.
occurs after age 50
vision is unaffected, no treatment needed
Keratoconus
degenerative thinning of cornea that creates a cone shape. seriously affects vision.
Treated with contact lenses in mild cases and corneal transplant in severe cases.
genetic.
scleritis
inflammation of the sclera. occurs in patients with autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis)
episcleritis
inflammation of the episcleral membrane
hyphema
Bleeding into the anterior chamber of the eye, usually due to trauma.
glaucoma
increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.
damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)