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60 terms

Chapter 5 Overview of Cell Biology

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carbohydrate
Polysaccharides are a form of:
centrosome
Which cytoplasmic organelle affects the formation of the mitotic spindle?
lipids
Which of the following is necessary for production of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone?
organic
Which of the following types of molecules contain carbon?
protein
What organic compound is responsible for the construction and repair of body tissues?
S
DNA is synthesized in which phase?
housing DNA and RNA
What is the primary function of the cell nucleus?
M
Which phase of the cell growth cycle has four subphases?
late in the G1 phase
When the process of cellular division stops and the cell does not divide further, this usually occurs at what point?
golgi apparatus
Which cytoplasmic organelle produces glycoproteins from large carbohydrate molecules and protein molecules?
metaphase
The centromeres duplicate themselves in which phase?
DNA
In the second meiotic division, which of the following is not duplicated?
water
Cell chemical reactions occur in what medium
active and passive
What are the two modes of transportation of the cell membrane?
lipids
Which of the following also serves to protect vital organs?
cells
What are the basic structures of living matter and control the growth and development of tissues and organs?
protoplasm
What is composed of 24 elements and is the foundation building material of all living things?
metabolism
What is the breaking down or synthesizing of substances in the body to produce heat and energy?
proteins
What are esstential for building new tissue, cell growth, and the repair of injured or debilitated tissue and cells?
proteins in the cell
What determines the cell's characteristics?
structural proteins
What type of protein gives the body shape and form and are a source of heat and energy?
Enzymatic proteins (enzymes)
What type of protein controls important chemical reactions in the cell?
proteins
What helps regulate body development and protect the body from illness?
carbohydrates
What acts as fuel for the body and a structural component of cell walls and material between cells?
glucose
What is the primary energy source for cells?
Lipids
What are an important part of the cell membrane and are necessary in the production of many hormones?
lipids
What are essential for muscle contraction and protect the body and vital organs from trauma?
DNA and RNA
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
sugar phosphate chains
What are the rails of a DNA helix?
DNA
What carries the genetic code for cell reproduction and cell activity?
DNA
What regulates the sequence of amino acids in proteins?
chromosomes
What are tiny rod shaped structures divided into hundreds of segments?
mineral salts
What help create energy for cells and conduct electrical impulses along nerves?
potassium
Where do most postive ions (cations) come from?
phosphate
Where do most negative ions (anions) come from?
ions
What helps regulate the amount of fluid in the cell?
higher
Water is attracted to areas where there are (higher/lower) concentrations of ions?
cytoplasm
Where do all metabolic functions of the cell occur?
glycoproteins
What are made from carbohydrate and protein molecules in the golgi apparatus?
golgi apparatus
What transports enzymes and hormones through the cell membrane into the blood stream?
oxidation
What is the process of digesting macromolecules by enzymes?
ribosomes
What is the manufacturing site of proteins?
mRNA
What are the managers of the protein factories?
mRNA
The ribosomes travel along:
tRNA
The proteins are made from amino acids that are combined by:
G1
What stage of interphase produces a form of RNA that is needed before DNA can be synthesized?
S phase
In what stage is each DNA molecule replicated?
chromatid
What is a tightly coiled strand of DNA?
S phase
In what stage of interphase do two chromatids connected with a centromere change to four chromatids connected with a centromere?
centromere
What is a clear region on the chromosome that connects the chromatids?
S phase
What is the longest stage of interphase?
G2
What stage of interphase does the cell prepare for mitosis by manufacturing proteins and RNA molecules?
centrioles
What are small, hollow, cylindrical structures that regulate the formation of the mitotic spindle?
first polar body
After the first meiotic division, the other cell that produces nonfunctional cells is called the:
one
How many daugter cells are functional after the second meiotic division?
ootid
What is the functional cell after meiosis called?
second polar bodies
What are the nonfunctional cells of meiosis called?
metaphase
During second meiotic division, the process stops at what stage until the secondary oocyte is fertilized?
anabolism
What is the process where nutritive material is being built up into the cell's structure or stored as a reserve for future use?
catabolism
What is the process where macromolecules are broken down into smaller molecules?