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Music Appreciation Exam 1
Terms in this set (49)
John Cage and 4'33"
Made a composition that was literally just silence. Makes audience focus on whatever noises are being made - audience "composes" this piece
Part of the world of sound.
An art based on the organization of sounds in time.
The relative highness or lowness we hear in a sound
Degree of loudness or softness in music
Tone Color (Timbre)
Quality of sound
Ex. Bright, dark, rich, mellow etc.
Range of singers voice depends on...
Training and physical makeup
Male/Female voice ranges
Male - Tenor, Baritone, Bass (thicker vocal cords = lower pitch)
Female - Soprano, Mezzo-Soprano, Alto (or contralto)
Largest section in the orchestra
What instrument group has the greatest versatility and expressive range
Highest pitched orchestral instrument
Stairway to heaven recorders
They're in the song
What replaced the harpsichord?
A recurring pattern of tension and release, of expectation and fulfillment
Flow of music through time
What are the two parts of a beat
upbeat and downbeat
Organization of beats into regular groups
Quadruple is the most common in Western music
What makes music interesting
Violation of expectation
How many different layers of sound are heard at once, what kind of layers they are, and how they are related to each other
Transparent, dark, thick, heavy, etc.
Monophonic, Polyphonic, Homophonic
Having one sound
Having many sounds
Sound or instrument is restated immediately by another
Main melody accompanied by chords
Attention focused on melody, supported by sounds of ordinate interest.
Ex. Row row row your boat
Techniques that create musical form
repetition - creates a sense of unity
Contrast - provides variety
Variation - Gives a work unity and variety at the same time
The organization of musical elements in time
Three part ternary
A B A
Glockenspiel, Xylophone, Bass Drum, Snare Drum, Cymbals, Timpani
Harp, Piano, First Violins, Second Violins, Viola, Cellos, Double Basses
Bass Clarinet, Piccolo, Clarinets, Flutes, Bassoons, Oboes, English Horn, Contrabassoon
French Horns, Trumpets, Trombones, Tuba
Style in music refers to...
A characteristic way of using melody, rhythm, tone color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form.
A digital processor that corrects out-of-tune vocal performance
Dominated by the Roman Catholic Church
Sharp division between social classes
Mostly Vocal - Church
Gregorian Chant - texture was Monophonic
Hardly any instruments (Church frowned upon them - Pagans) (exception of pipe organ)
Catholic church far less powerful than in Middle ages
Idea of "universal man" - every educated son expected to be trained in music
Composers often used word painting
Texture was chiefly polyphonic
More gentle flow than sharply defined beat
Palaestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass
The Renaissance Lute song - Flow my tears (lute
Instrumental music became more important
"bizarre, flamboyant, elaborately ornamented"
Aristrocracy - musicians for courts etc.
Still religious influence - emotional and theatrical qualities to make worship more attractive
Two main Baroque composers
Bach and Handel
Characteristics of Baroque music
usually expressed one basic mood - what begins joyfully will remain joyful (affections)
Rhythm - moving forward. Beat far more emphasized than in Renaissance
Melody - feeling on continuity
Dynamics - continuity, but when they shift its sudden
Texture - predominantly polyphonic
alternation between loud and soft
Where did common citizens hear music during the baroque period
a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent of a larger composition
Before 1800s music was written to order, to meet specific demands that came mainly from...
Churches and aristocratic courts
Polyphonic composition based on one main theme (the subject)
Throughout the fugue different melodic lines called voices imitate the subject
Where was opera born
Monteverdi and "orfeo"
Orfeo = opera about Orpheus, a gifted musician of greek myth
A song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment
Expresses an emotional state
A vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
Baroque opera subject matter
Greek mythology and ancient history
Bass repeated over and over while the melodies change
How is Bach's music unique
Combination of polyphonic texture and rich harmony
Large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra
Usually set to narrative texts
Usually based on bibilical stories
composed in 24 days
At first poorly received (christian text in theater)
Took about 10 years to become popular
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 2: middle age renissance
The Baroque Period
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