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In bright light, the iris __________ and the pupil __________ to control the amount of light entering the eye.
The pain-killing effects of acupuncture may be related to
b.stabilization of physiological nystagmus
c.the triggering of perceptual defense systems
d.release of endorphins
Information picked up by the body's receptor cells is termed
The function of the lens is to
a.locate an image
b.focus an image on the retina
c.combine the location and projection on the blind spot
d.project an image on the cornea
Hearing aids are of no use to an individual with __________ deafness.
Information processed below the normal level of awareness is called
The idea that the amount of change in a stimulus necessary to produce a JND is a constant proportion of the stimulus intensity is called
b.the all-or-none principle
c.the law of diminishing returns
Neural circuits of many sensory systems
a.respond to specific stimulus patterns
b.respond to the whole visual field
c.respond primarily to stationary objects
d.develop only after birth
A researcher presents two lights of varying brightness to a subject who is asked to respond "same" or "different" by comparing their intensities. The researcher is seeking the
a.just noticeable difference
Seeing out of the corner of your eye, often important in sports activities and driving, is called
Brain cells that analyze incoming sensory information into lines, angles, shading, and movement are called
b.second stage sensors
Which would represent the greatest loss to a professional wine taster or chef?
b.injury to the pinna
d.injury to the cochlea
Photoreceptors are the __________ sensitive cells that line the retina.
a.occur when we can first detect some stimulus
b.occur when we can detect the change in the intensity of a stimulus
c.depend on the energy necessary to stimulate a sensory receptor
d.are measured in Judgmental Normal Differences
It is now believed that subliminal advertising
a.is a powerful influence and should be legally controlled
b.is effective only when used in wide-screen movies
c.is successful because the stimuli used register unconsciously
d.has a weak effect, if any at all
In order for a frog's visual "bug-detector" to work, the bug must be
b.coming closer to the frog
a.involves the presentation of stimuli too rapidly or too weakly to be consciously recognized
b.has not been used by advertisers in an attempt to increase sales
c.has dramatic effects on a person's emotions
d.changes an individual's intended behavior
A visual defect known as astigmatism is the result of
a.an eyeball that is too short
b.an eyeball that is too long
c.an abnormal distribution of visual receptors in the retina
d.a misshapen cornea or lens
Which sensory receptor is found in greatest numbers in the skin?
Frequency is to __________ as amplitude is to __________.
The process where the lens of the eye changes shape is called
Hearing loss caused when the eardrums or ossicles are damaged by disease or injury is called
The incoming flow of information from our sensory systems is referred to as
What sensory organs responsible for balance are also related to motion sickness?
c.the olfactory bulb
d.the semicircular canals
The cones of the retina
a.are densely packed in an area called the fovea
b.are specialized for black and white sensations
c.function best in dim light
d.are not well specialized for fine detail
The organ of hearing, where sensitive cells respond to auditory stimuli, is known as the
Myopia is the condition of the eyes in which the person cannot
a.focus on distant objects
b.see very well in dim illumination
c.focus on objects near the eyes
d.see clearly because the lens is pigmented
The iris controls the
a.thickness of the lens
b.size of the pupil
c.flexibility of the cornea
d.distance between the lens and retina
Brain cells that analyze incoming sensory information into lines, angles, shading and movement are called
b.second stage sensors
The psychological dimension corresponding to the amplitude of light waves is
Sense receptors are biological transducers, which means that they
a.select from a broad range of stimulation
b.analyze the environment into important features
c.convert one form of energy to another
d.detect only a limited range of energies
Airborne chemical signals which greatly affect mating, sexual behavior, and territorial marking among animals are called
d.lock and key signals
In the eye, focusing is accomplished by
a.changing the thickness of the cornea
b.relaxing or constricting the fovea
c.changing the distance between the lens and the retina
d.changing the thickness (or shape) of the lens
Which theory of hearing explains the perception of higher sounds?
Which theory of color vision is correct?
d.both opponent-process and trichromatic
Visual acuity is best when
a.an image falls on the rods
b.colors at the edges of the visible spectrum are used
c.an image falls on the fovea
d.both the rods and the cones are used
Skin mapping indicates that
a.the forearm is the most sensitive area of the body
b.skin receptors are found in varying concentrations, reflecting the sensitivity of the body areas
c.pain receptors do not vary in concentration, but are uniform for all parts of the body
d.temperature sensitivity is greatest in the chest and trunk areas
When an image is stabilized on the retina, after a brief period of time the image
a.is seen with normal visual acuity
b.is seen with better than normal acuity
c.fades and disappears
d.becomes distorted in shape and color
Visual perception is ultimately a function of the
a.muscular movements of the eye
b.neural activity of the rods and cones
c.particular pathways over which neural impulses travel
d.neural activity in the brain
The part of the eye where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the
The point at which a change in sensory stimulation is detected is called the
c.just noticeable difference
Night vision is mainly due to an increase in
d.the sensitivity of the lens
The vestibular sense helps keep us from
a.eating too much.
b.starving to death.
c.being blinded by the sun.
The minimum amount of energy needed for a sensation to occur is called
a.the absolute threshold
The electromagnetic spectrum includes visible light, infrared and ultraviolet light, radio waves, and
a.a broad range of nerve impulses
b.television broadcasts, gamma rays, and other energies
c.a single form of energy
many kinds of nerve impulses
Taste buds sensitive to sweet substances are found primarily on the __________ of the tongue.
The stimuli for audition are
a.sound pressure waves
The __________ theory explains that hearing high or low tones depends upon which area of the cochlea is most strongly stimulated.
Kinesthetic sensation results from
a.receptors in the inner ear that signal balance
b.receptors in the skin
c.mechanical distortion of the semi-circular canals
d.receptors in the muscles and joints responding to movement
The stapes is attached to a second membrane, or drumhead, called the __________. As this moves back and forth, it makes waves in a fluid within the __________.
b.eardrum; tympanic membrane
c.cochlea; oval window
d.oval window; cochlea
The conversion of electromagnetic energy into a neural impulse involves
d.localization of function
The three auditory ossicles are the malleus, incus, and the
d.organ of Corti
The amount of change necessary in a given stimulus to produce a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the original stimulus. This defines
Sense organs in the joints and muscles contribute to our __________ sense.
Humans respond to different wavelengths of light by experiencing differing
b.levels of brightness
c.amounts of saturation
The three small bones of the inner ear are called the
That humans are not visually sensitive to ultraviolet radiation suggests that sensory systems function as
d.data reduction systems
Which of the following body areas is most sensitive to pain?
c.the thumb pad
d.behind the knee
a.involves the presentation of stimuli rapidly but strong enough to be consciously recognized
b.has been used by advertising companies and politicians in an attempt to increase sales or change opinions
c.has strong emotional effects on a person
d.has been shown to make people by popcorn when used in movie theaters
Taste buds are mainly located
a.near the back of the tongue
b.near the tip of the tongue
c.near the middle of the tongue
d.on the top side of the tongue especially around the edges
According to Weber's Law, if two light bulbs must go out in a room in which twenty are burning to make the room noticeably dimmer, then a room in which forty are burning will become noticeably dimmer when __________ bulbs go out.
The most widely accepted explanation for motion sickness is provided by
a.dynamic movement theory
b.sensory conflict theory
c.integration of the senses theory
d.the Gestalt principles of perception
Sensory adaptation refers to a decrease in sensory response that accompanies
c.an unchanging stimulus
In the auditory system, the first anatomical structure to respond to the sound wave is/are the
The ringing sensation following exposure to loud sounds is called
Messages from the body's pain warning system
a.close the spinal gate directly
b.pass through the pain gate and on to a "central biasing system"
c.inhibit the production of endorphins
d.are processed in the right hemisphere
That you do not hear the traffic outside your psychology class because you are engrossed in the lecture is a good example of
The __________ theory explains how sounds up to 4000 hertz reach the brain.
The final step (within the ear) required to convert vibrations into sound sensations is movement of the
A system is developed where a television camera produces an "image" of touch points applied to the back of a blind person. Such a system involves
a.a conversion of light into JNDs
b.transducing light into pressure
c.the mechanical production of phosphenes
d.applying the "lock and key" theory of touch
When you were in seventh grade, you had to get glasses because you could not see the board at school. Your vision problem is called
A popular theory of olfaction which states that odors are related to the shapes of chemical molecules is the __________ theory.
c.lock and key
Which theory of hearing explains the perception of lower sounds?
New mothers who are emotionally depressed take longer than non-depressed women to recognize pictures related to pregnancy, birth, and babies. This is an example of
One of the characteristics that all sensory systems have in common is
A "silent" dog whistle takes advantage of a characteristic of sensory systems known as
a.the absolute threshold
b.the difference threshold
d.a just noticeable difference
Skin senses, kinesthetic senses, and vestibular senses comprise which sense system?
a.perceptual feedback system
b.somesthetic sense system
c.signal balance system
d.motion sense system
Melzack and Wall's theory that some pain messages can block other pain messages is called
c.gate control theory
The theory of color vision which states that the visual system analyzes information into "either-or" messages is the __________ theory.
__________ is concerned with relating changes in physical stimuli to corresponding psychological sensations.
Black and white vision with greatest sensitivity under low levels of illumination describes the function of
b.the visual pigments
The fact that we see negative afterimages supports which theory of color vision?
d.both opponent-process and trichromatic
Unpleasant stimuli may raise the threshold for recognition. This phenomenon is called
After a musical concert that you enjoyed without distraction, a companion complains that she heard little of the music due to frequent shuffling and throat-clearing in the audience. The difference in your experience and hers is related to
a.just noticeable differences
Sensory adaptation is normally most rapid for the sense of
Visual problems such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism are the result of
a.irregularities in the visual cortex
b.nutritional or traumatic damage to the sensory nerves
c.physical abnormalities in the structure of the eye
d.defective processing of sensory information in the visual cortex
The external, or visible, part of the ear is called the
Localization of function means that
a.sense organs respond to only one form of stimulation
b.specific areas of the brain are specialized to interpret input from particular sense organs
c.each sense system has the means of detecting, encoding, and interpreting sensory information in a particular sense organ
d.the nature of one's experience of a stimulus depends entirely on where it is located in the visual field
The cones of the retina
a.are densely packed in the periphery of the retina
b.are specialized for black, white, and gray sensations
c.function best in bright light
d.are responsible for night vision
The sensation you experience ultimately depends on which of the following?
a.the nature of the sensory receptors activated
b.the particular processes involved in transduction
c.the particular area of the brain that is activated
d.the pathways traveled by nerve impulses from sensory receptors
Trichromatic theory states that there are three kinds of __________ in the eye.
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