302 terms

AP US History Midterm Exam - January 2013

Barron's AP US History Flashcards #1-252
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Christopher Columbus
-Italian-born navigator who found fame when he landed in the Americas (October 12, 1942)
-Set sail on behalf of Spain with three ships: The Nina, The Pinta, and his flagship, The Santa Maria
-Originally, he had sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean to find a water route to Asia
-Columbus was convinced that he had found the waterway and that the Americas were actually an extension of China
-Returned from his expedition with gold, encouraging future exploration
Amerigo Vespucci
-Italian member of a Portuguese expedition
-Explored South America
-Discovery suggested that the expedition had discovered a "New World"
-After an account of Vespucci's 1497 expedition was published, a cartographer mistakenly thought that Vespucci had led the expedition and had landed in the New World before Christopher Columbus; the cartographer named the continent America
Treaty of Tordesillas
-1493
-commitment between Spain and Portugal
-created a Papal line of Demarcation, which divided the New World: east of the line for Portugal and west of it for Spain
-Portugal also recieved the easternmost part of what is currently Brazil, when it "discovered" the land in 1500
-Later, the Papal line affected colonization in Africa and Asia
New Spain
-Spain's tightly controlled empire in the New World
-Mainly located in North and Central America, including the Caribbean and Spanish East Indies
-To deal with labor shortages, the Spaniards developed a system of large manors (encomiendas) using Native American slaves under conquistadors
-Wih the death of Native American slaves, Spaniards began importing African slaves to supply their labor needs
Mercantilism
-Prevailing economic philosophy of the 1600s that held that colonies existed to serve their mother country
-Founded on the belief that the world's wealth was sharply limited and, therefore, one nation's gain was another nation's loss
-Each nation's goal was to export more than it imported in a favorable balance of trade; the difference would be made up in their possession of gold and silver, which would make the nation strong both economically and militarily
-Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government
Queen Elizabeth I
1533-1603
-Protestant successor to Queen Mary (England)
-Popular leader and the first woman to successfully hold the throne
-Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World; Spain responded with the Spanish Armada
-Established Protestantism in England and encouraged english business
The Spanish Armada
-1588
-Fleet established by King Phillip II of Spain to invade England
-The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault
-England's victory over Spanish forces was one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I, as it established England as an emerging sea power
-Its defeat helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire
Charter Colony
-Type of colony in the New World
-Colonists were essentially members of a corporation, and electors among the colonists controlled the government based on an agreed-upon charter
Royal Colony
-Type of colony in the New World
-had a governor selected by England's king; the governor served in the leadership role and chose additional, lower-ranking officers
Proprietary Colony
-Type of colony in the New World
-owned by individuals with direct responsibility to the king; each proprietor selected a governor, who served as the authority figure for the colony
English Puritanism
-Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology
-Though King Henry VIII had set out to separate his own Church of England from papal authority, many Roman Catholic traditions and practices remained
-Puritans rejected these Roman Catholic holdovers and sought to make the English Chuch "pure"
-Puritans held Calvinist beliefs, such as predestination and the authority of Scripture over papal authority
-Puritanism echoes throughout American culture in the ideas of self-reliance, moral fortitude, and an emphasis on intellectualism
Joint-Stock Company
-A type of businss structure used by some colonial explorers to raise money for their expeditions
-These private trading companies sold shares to investors who provided start-up funding
-In return for taking on the risk of the investment, investors were paid based on the profits of the expedition
-Many modern business structures, such as the American corporation, are founded on principles of this business structure
Dutch West India Company
-The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became New York
-Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iriquois
-Instituted the patroon system
Patroon System
-large states were given to wealthy men who transported at least 50 families to New Netherland to tend the land
-few seized the opportunity
Sir Walter Raleigh
-Selected Roanoke Island as the site for the first English settlement
-Returned to England to secure additional supplies, but he found the colony deserted upon his return; it is not known what became of the Roanoke settlers
-Raleigh abandoned his attempts to colonize Virginia after the failure at Roanoke
-Held back by a lack of financial resources and the war with Spain, English colonization in America was impeded for fifteen years
St. Augustine, Florida
-French Protestants (Huguenots) went to the New World to freely practice their religion, and they formed a colony near modern-day St. Augustine, Florida
-Spain, which oversaw Florida, reacted violently to the Huguenots because they were trespassers and because they were viewed as heretics by the Catholic Church
-Spain sent a force to the settlement and massacred the fort's inhabitants
-The settlement at St. Augustine, Florida is considered to be the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States
Jamestown
-Named for James I (1566-1625), Queen Elizabeth's successor in England
-James I granted charters for charter colonies in the New World
-In 1607, the Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement
-Swampy location led to disease and contaminated water source
-Despite its location and hostile relations with Native Americans, John Smith's harsh, charismatic leadership of the colony helped keep it from collapsing
-In 1619, African slaves arrived at Jamestown, becoming the first group of slaves to reach a British settlement
Starving Time
-1609-1610
-A period of starvation endured by teh Jamestown colonists
-The colonists depended on trade with the local Native Americans for their food supplies
-A series of conflicts between the colonists and the Native Americans limited the colonists' ability to trade for supplies and farm their own food
-A large number of colonists died and others tried to flee to England; however, boats arriving with supplies from England intercepted the colonists and forced them to return to Jamestown
-Additional support from England, the development of new industries, and the creation of new trade partnerships helped ensure the settlement's long-term survival
Indentured Servitude
-Poor workers, convicted criminals, and debtors received immigration passage and fees in return for a number of years at labor on behalf of a planter or company
-servants entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept some legal rights
-However, servants had little control over the conditions of their work and living arrangements, and the system led to harsh and brutal treatment
-It remained the predominant system of labor until the 1670s; Bacon's Rebellion made the practice seem more risky to planters and owners, and improving economic conditions in England decreased the supply of servants
-Many owners relied on slave labor instead
John Rolfe
-1585-1622
-English colonist in Jamestown, Virginia
-Married Pocahantas
-Created process for curing tobacco, ensuring economic success for Jamestown
House of Burgesses
-1619
-Representative assembly in Virginia
-Election to a seat was limited to voting members of the charter colony, which at first was all free men; later rules required that a man own at least fifty acres of land to vote
-First representative house in America
-Instituted the private ownership of land but maintained the rights of colonists
Headright System
-System used by the Virginia Company to attract colonists
-It promised them parcels of land (roughly fifty acres) to immigrate to America
-Also gave nearly fifty acres for each servant that a colonist brought, allowing the wealthy to obtain large tracts of land
-The system solidified the use of indentured servitude for the time being
Separatists
-Puritans who believed the Church of England was beyond saving and that they must break away from it
-One group that suffered harrassment from the government fled to Holland and then to America
-members of this group traveled on the Mayflower and became known as the Piglrims, a term used for voyagers seeking to fulfill a religious mission
Plymouth
-The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth, England, in September 1620 and landed in Provincetown Harbor, settling in what became Plymouth, Massachusetts
-Before landing in the New World, the Pilgrims formed the Mayflower Compact, which provided for a government guided by teh majority
-William Bradford (1590-1657) served as the Plymouth Colony's first governor
Massachussetts Bay Company
-1629
-joint-stock company chartered by a group of Puritans escaping King James I
-led by John Winthrop, who taught that the new colony should be a model of Christian society
-These Puritans carefully organized their venture and, upon arriving in Mass., did not undergo the "starving time" that had often plagued other first-year colonies
-The government of Mass. developed to include a governor and a representative assembly
Delaware
-1631 Dutch patroons established the first settlement in Delaware
-that settlement was destroyed by Native American attacks
-The Dutch West India Company and Dutchmen, including Peter Minuit, began to trade and settle in Delaware during the mid-to-late 1630s
-Between 1664 and 1674, Delaware switched between Dutch and English ownership, wnding with English ownership in 1674
Maryland
-1632 became the first proprietary colony to serve as a refuge for English Catholics
George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) applied for the charter to create the Province of Maryland
-Calvert's son, Caecilius, helped establish a representative assembly
-Marylan passed its Act of Toleration in 1649, guaranteeing religious freedom to all Christians in the colony; this set an important precedent for later characterization of the United States and the Constitution
Anne Hutchinson
-claimed to have had sepcial revelations from God that superseded the Bible, contrary to Puritan doctrine
-the leadership of New England accused her of antimonian teachings
-tried and banished form Massachussetts Bay Colony
-with her followers, she founded Portsmouth in the Aquidneck region (1638) in what is now known as Rhode Island
Antimonianism
-the belief that salvation os attained through faith and divine grace and not through strict adherence to rules or moreal laws
Roger Williams
-1603 to 1683
-Puritan preacher who fled Massachussetts after his views on religious observance became too extreme for the colonists
-Williams bought land from the Native Americans and founded Providence in 1636, and it was soon populated by many of his followers
Rhode Island
-formed in 1644 as a combination of Providence, Portsmouth, and other settlements that had sprung up in the area
-through Roger Williams, the colony granted complete religious toleration
-tended to be populated by exiles and troublemakers and was sometimes calles "Rogue's Island"
-suffered constant political turmoil
English Civil War
-1641 to 1651
-Conflict was based in the struggle between King Charles I (son of King James I) and the English Parliament
-led to outright conflict between Royalist military forces and forces opposing Charles I
-Parliament's victory in 1651 resulted in the trial and execution of Charles I and the exile of his son Charles II
-The english monarchy was replaced with the commonwealth of england (1649-1653) and then with a protectorate under Oliver Cromwell's rule (1653-1659)
Sides of the English Civil War
-Charles claimed to rule by divine right; Parliament argues that its membership had rights that were separate from those granted to the king
-parliament's members were mostly Puritan and had the backing of the merchant class and lesser land owners
-wealthy nobles tended to support Charles I, who opposed Puritans on questions of religion
Connecticut
-corporate colony established in 1662
-Thomas Hooker led a large group of Puritans to settle in the Connecticut River Valley after they had slight religious disagreements with the leadership of Massachussetts
-the major colonies in the Connecticut River Valley agreed to unite as the Connecticut Colony
Fundamental Orders
-in 1639, Connecticut Colony formed a set of laws known as the Fundamental Orders
-provided for a representative government by those who were permitted to vote
-when the corporate colony was established and recognized by england, its charter was founded on the fundamental orders
-imporant example of the growth of political democracy
Quakers
-believed human religious institutions were largey unnecessary
-thought they could receive revelationg directly form God and placed little importance on the Bible
-pacifists and declined to show customary deference to their alleged social superiors
-their aggressiveness in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in both britain and america
-opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native Americans
-elements of the culture would play a role in shaping the characterization of a United States that valued independence and social equality
New York
-Last duth governor of New York was Peter Stuyvesant
-after the british conquered the dutch lands in america, english king Charles II gave the title to the lands between New England and Maryland to his brother, James, Duke of York
-James was adamantly opposed to representative assemblies
-residents continue to call for self-government until James relented, only to break his promise when he became JamesII, King of England
New Jersey
the region that would become New Jersey was ruled as a separate propritary colony; it eventually became a royal colony
The Carolinas
-King Charles II rewarded loyal noblemen with these lands after the 20 year puritan revolution in england
-in hoped of attracting settlers, the proprietor planed for a hierarchial society
-they experimented with silk manufacturing and with crops such as rice and indigo, but this proved unworkable and the Carolinas grew slowly as a result
-large groups of colonists in the Carolinas came from Barbados; the form of slavery that this group employed was very harsh
-While North Carolina became a separate colony in 1712, the same proprietors retained ownership
-rebellion against the proprietors in 1719 led to royal intervention, and both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729
William Penn
-1644 to 1718
-founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for his fellow Quakers
-advertised his colony widely in Europe and offered generous terms on land
-guaranteed a representative assembly and full religious freedom
-settlers flocked to Pennsylvania form all over Europe
Black Slaves in the 1600s
-because black slaves were only a small percentage of the population, they began at almost the same level as indentured servants
-later in the century, increased importation and population of blacks in the southern colonies began
-slaves, called "chattel," came to be seen as lifelong property whose status would be inherited by their children
Before John Locke
-Isaac Newton theorized Natural Law in the realm of science
-Locke followed Newton by trying to identify Natural Law in the human realm
-there had previously been a theory of social contract in which people would accept certain restrictions on themselves for the benefit of their society, and these restrictions would be upheld by a sovereign power
John Locke
-1632 to 1704
-major English political philosopher of the Enlightenment
-his assertion of Natural Law changed the perspective of the social contract theory
-believed that if life, liberty, and property were not protected, governments could be overthrown justly
-his ideas became the indirect theory of American political activity for leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, and they influenced Thomas Jefferson in writing the Declaration of Independence
Triangular Trade (Atlantic Trade)
-created as a result of mercantilism
-european merchants purchased african slaves with good manufactured in europe or imported from asian colonies
-these merchants sold slaved in the caribbean for commodities (sugar, cotton, tobacco)
-caribbean commodities were late sold in europe and North America
-trade thrived because each partner could get the resources it wanted by exchanging resources that it had available
Navigation Acts
-dictated that certain goods shipped from a New World port were to go only to Britain or to another New World port
-served as the foundation of england's worldwide commercial system
-came out of the economis philosophy of mercantilism
-though it was meant to benefit the whole british empire, its provisions helped some New World colonies at the expense of others
-intended as a weapon in england's ongoing struggle against its rival, Holland
-led to increased tension between britain and the colonies
Effects of the Navigation Acts
-boosted the prosperity of New Englanders, who engaged in large-scale shipbuilding
-hurt the residents of the Chesapeke by driving down the price of tobacco
-transferred wealth from america to britain by increasing the prices americans had to pay for british goods and lowering the prices americans received for the goods they produced
-mercantilism also helped bring on a series of wars between england and holland in the late 1600s
Bacon's Rebellion
-1676
-Virginia's Royal governor, William Berkeley, received strict instructions to run the colony for the benefit of Britain
-Nathaniel Bacon was a leader of colonial frontiersmen in Virginia
-Bacon objected to the rights granted to Virginia's wealthy inner circle and was angered by Governor Berkeley's inability to protect Virginia from attacks by the Native Americans
-Bacon commanded two unauthorized raids on Native American tribes, increasing his popularity; Berkeley had him arrested
-Soon after, Bacon gathered his forces, opposed the Royal governor, and set fire to Jamestown to defend his forces' position
-Berkely ended the rebellion with te aid of British military forces
-After Bacon's rebellion, American colonies turned increasingly away from indentured servants and toward slave labor
New Hampshire
-king charles II established it as a royal colony
-the colony remained economically dependent on Massachussetts, and britain continued to appoint a single person to rule both colonies until 1741
-weeks before the signing of the declaration of independence by the second continental congress, New Hampshire established a temporary constitution for itself that proclaimed its independence from britain
Dominion of New England
-an administrative body created by king james II that oversaw british colonies in the new england colonies
-put in place to implement the navigation acts and to assist the colonies in defending themselves against french and native american forces
-the dominion governor-in-chief, edmund andros, outlawed
Christopher Columbus
- 1451-1506.
- Italian-born navigator who found fame when he landed in the Americas (October 12, 1492.)
- Set sail on behalf of Spain with three ships: the Niña, the Pinta, and his flagship, the Santa María.
Amerigo Vespucci
- 1454-1512.
- Italian member of a Portuguese expedition.
- Explored South America.
- Discovery suggested that the expedition has found a "New World."
- After an account of Vespucci's 1497 expedition was published, a cartographer mistakenly thought that Vespucci had led the expedition and had landed in the New World before Christopher Columbus; the cartographer named the continent America.
Treaty of Tordesillas
- 1493.
- Commitment between Spain and Portugal.
- Created a Papal Line of Demarcation, which divided the New World: east of the line for Portugal and west of it for Spain.
- Portugal also received the easternmost part of what is currently Brazil, when it "discovered" the land in 1500.
- Later, the Papal Line affected colonization in Africa and Asia.
New Spain
- 1400s and 1500s.
- Spain's tightly controlled empire in the New World.
- Mainly located in North and Central America, including the Caribbean and Spanish East Indies.
- To deal with labor shortages, the Spaniards developed a system of large manors (encomiendas) using Native American slaves under conquistadors.
- With the death of Native American slaves, Spaniards began importing African slaves to supply their labor needs.
Mercantilism
- 1500s-1700s.
- Prevailing economic philosophy of the 1600s that held that colonies existed to serve the mother country.
- Founded on the belief that the world's wealth was sharply limited and, therefore, one nation's gain was another nation's loss.
- Each nation's goal was to export more than it imported in a favorable balance of trade; the difference would be made up in their possession of gold and silver, which would make the nation strong both economically and militarily.
- Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government.
Queen Elizabeth I
- 1533-1603.
- Protestant successor to Queen Mary (England.)
- Popular leader and the first woman to successfully hold the throne.
- Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World; Spain responded with the Spanish Armada.
- Established Protestantism in England and encouraged English business.
The Spanish Armada
- 1588
- Fleet assembled by King Philip II of Spain to invade England.
- The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault.
- England's victory over Spanish forces was one of the greatest achievements of Queen Elizabeth I, as it established England as an emerging sea power.
- Its defeat helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire.
Types of Colonies in the New World
- 1600s.
- In a charter colony, colonists were essentially members of a corporation, and electors among the colonists controlled the government based on an agreed-upon charter.
- A royal colony had a governor selected by England's king; the governor served in the leadership role and chose additional, lower-ranking officers.
- Proprietary colonies were owned by individuals with direct responsibility to the king; each proprietor selected a governor, who served as the authority figure for the colony.
English Puritanism
- 1500s and 1600s.
- Movement by those who wished to reform the Church of England to be more in line with their ideology.
- Though King Henry VIII had set out the separate his own Church of England from papal authority, many Roman Catholic traditions and practices remain.
- Puritans rejected these Roman Catholic holdovers and sought to make the English Church "pure."
- Puritans held Calvinist beliefs, such as predestination and the authority of Scripture over papal authority.
- Puritanism echoes throughout American culture in the ideas of self-reliance, moral fortitude, and an emphasis on intellectualism.
Joint-Stock Company
- Popularized in 1600s
- A type of business structure used by some colonial explorers to raise money for their expeditions.
- These private trading companies sold shares to investors who provided start-up funding.
- In return for taking on the risk of the investment, investors were paid based on the profits of the expedition.
- Many modern business structures, such as the American corporation, are founded on principles of the joint-stock company.
Dutch West India Company
- 1500s and 1600s.
- The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and in New Amsterdam, which later became New York.
- Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois.
- Instituted the patroon system, in which large estates were given to wealthy men who transported at least fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land (few seized the opportunity.)
Sir Walter Raleigh
- 1587.
- Selected Roanoke Island as a site for the first English settlement.
- Returned to England to secure additional supplies, but he found the colony deserted upon his return; it is not know what became of the Roanoke settlers.
- Raleigh abandoned his attempts to colonize Virginia after the failure at Roanoke.
- Held back by a lack of financial resources and the war with Spain, English colonization in America was impeded for fifteen years.
St. Augustine, Florida
- 1598.
- French Protestants (Huguenots) went to the New World to freely practice their religion, and they formed a colony near modern-day St. Augustine, Florida.
- Spain, which oversaw Florida, reacted violently to the Huguenots because they were trespassers and because they were viewed as heretics by the Catholic Church.
- Spain sent a force to the settlement and massacred the fort's inhabitants.
- The settlement at St. Augustine, Florida, is considered to be the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States.
Jamestown
- Established in 1607.
- Names for James I (1566-1625), Queen Elizabeth's successor in England.
- James I granted charters for charter colonies in the New World.
- In 1607, the Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement.
- Swampy location led to disease and contaminated water sources.
- Despite its location and hostile relations with Native Americans, John Smith's harsh, charismatic leadership of the colony helped keep it from collapsing.
- In 1619, African slaves arrived at Jamestown, becoming the first group of slaves to reach a British settlement.
"Starving Time"
- 1609-1610.
- A period of starvation endured by the Jamestown colonists.
- The colonists depended upon trade with the local Native Americans for their food supplies.
- A series of conflicts between the colonists and the Native Americans limited the colonists' ability to trade for supplies and to farm their own food.
- A large number of colonists dies and others tried to flee to England; however, boats arriving with supplies from England intercepted the colonists and forced them to return to Jamestown.
- Additional support from England, the development of new industries, and the creates of new trade partnerships helped ensure the settlement's long-term survival.
Indentured Servitude
- 1600s.
- Poor workers, convicted criminals, and debtors received immigration passage and fees in return for a number of years a labor on behalf of a planter or company.
- Servants entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept some legal rights.
- However, servants had little control over the conditions of their work and living arrangements, and the system led to harsh and brutal treatment.
- It remained the predominant system of labor until the 1670s; Bacon's Rebellion made the practice seem more risky to planters and owners, and improving the economic conditions in England decreased the supply of servants.
- Many owners relied on slave labor instead.
John Rolfe
- 1585-1622.
- English colonist in Jamestown, Virginia.
- Married Pocahontas.
- Created process for curing tobacco, ensuring economic success for Jamestown.
House of Burgesses
- 1619.
- Representative assembly in Virginia.
- election to a seat was limited to voting members of the charter colony, which at first was all free men; later rules required that a man own at least fifty acres of land to vote.
- First representative house in America.
- Instituted the private ownership of land but maintained the rights of colonists.
Headright System
- Introduced in 1618.
- System used by the Virginia Company to attract colonists.
- It promised them parcels of land (roughly fifty acres) to immigrate to America.
- Also gave nearly fifty acres for each servant that a colonist brought, allowing the wealthy to obtain large tracts of land.
- The system solidified the use of indentured servitude for the time being.
The Separatists and Plymouth
- 1620.
- Separatists were Puritans who believed the Church of England was beyond saving and felt that they must break away from it.
- One group of Separatists that suffered harassment from the government fled to Holland and then to America.
- Members of this group traveled on the Mayflower and became known as the Pilgrims, a term used for voyagers seeking to fulfill a religious mission.
- The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth, England, in September 1620 and landed in Provincetown Harbor, settling in what became Plymouth, Massachusetts.
- Before landing in the New World, the Pilgrims formed the Mayflower Compact, which provided for a government guided by the majority.
- William Bradford (1590-1657) served as the Plymouth Colony's first governor.
Massachusetts Bay Company
- 1629.
- Joint-stock company chartered by a group of Puritans escaping King James I.
- Led by John Winthrop, who taught that the new colony should be a model of Christian society.
- These Puritans carefully organized their venture and, upon arriving in Massachusetts, did not undergo the "starving time" that had often plagued other first-year colonies.
- The government of Massachusetts developed to include a governor and a representative assembly.
Delaware
- 1631.
- Dutch patroon established the first settlement in Delaware.
- That settlement was destroyed by native American attacks.
- The Dutch West India Company and Dutchmen, including Peter Minuit, began to trade and settle in Delaware during the mid-to-late 1630s.
- Between 1664 and 1674, Delaware switched between Dutch and English ownership,ending with English ownership in 1674.
Maryland
- 1632.
- Maryland became the first proprietary colony to serve as a refuge for English Catholics.
- George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) applied for the charter to create the Province of Maryland.
- Calvert's son, Caecilius, helped establish a representative assembly.
- Maryland passed its Act of Toleration in 1649, guaranteeing religious freedom to all Christians in the colony; this set an important precedent for later characterization of the United States and its Constitution.
Anne Hutchinson
- 1638.
- Claimed to have had special revelations from God that superseded the Bible, contrary to Puritan doctrine.
- The leadership of New England accused her of antinomian teachings (antinomianism is the belief that salvation is attained through faith and divine grace and not through strict adherence to rules or moral laws.)
- Hutchinson was tried and banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
- With her followers, she founded Portsmouth in the Aquidneck region (1638) in what is now known as Rhode Island.
Roger Williams and Rhode Island
- Williams, 1603-1683; Rhode Island established in 1644.
- Williams was a Puritan preacher who fled Massachusetts after his views on religious observance became too extreme for the colonists.
- Williams bought land from the native Americans and founded Providence in 1636, and it was soon populated by his many followers.
- Rhode Island formed as a combination of Providence, Portsmouth, and other settlements that had sprung up in the area.
- Through Roger Williams, the colony granted complete religious toleration.
- It tended to be populated by exiles and troublemakers and was sometimes called "Rogue's Island."
- The colony suffered constant political turmoil.
English Civil War
- 1641-1651.
- Conflict was based in the struggle between King Charles I (son of King James I) and the English Parliament.
- Charles claimed to rule by divine right; Parliament argued that its membership had rights that were separate from those granted to the king.
- Parliament's members were mostly Puritan and had the backing of the merchant class and lesser land owners.
- Wealthy nobles tended to support Charles I, who opposed Puritans on questions of religion.
- Led to outright conflict between Royalist military forces and forces opposing Charles I.
- Parliament's victory in 1651 resulted in the trial and execution of Charles I and the exile of his son Charles II.
- The English monarchy was replaced with the Commonwealth of England (1649-1653) and then with a Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell's rule (1653-1659.)
Connecticut
- Corporate colony established 1662.
- Thomas Hooker led a large group of Puritans to settle in the Connecticut River Valley after they had slight religious disagreements with the leadership of Massachusetts.
- The major colonies in the Connecticut River Valley agreed to unite as the Connecticut Colony.
- In 1639, the colony formed a set of laws known as the Fundamental Orders; these laws provided for representative government by those who were permitted to vote.
- When the corporate colony was established and recognized by England, its charter was founded on the Fundamental Orders.
- The Fundamental Orders are an important example of the growth of political democracy.
The Carolinas
- Granted in 1663.
- King Charles II rewarded loyal noblemen with these lands after the twenty-year Puritan revolution in England.
- In hopes of attracting settlers, the proprietors planned for a hierarchical society.
- They experimented with silk manufacturing and with crops such as rice and indigo, but this proved unworkable and the Carolinas grew slowly as a result.
- Large groups of colonists in the Carolinas came from Barbados; the form of slavery that this group employed proved to be very harsh.
- While North Carolina became a separate colony in 1712, the same proprietors retained ownership.
- Rebellion against the proprietors in 1719 led to royal intervention, and both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729.
New York and New Jersey
- Established 1664.
- Last Dutch governor of New York was Peter Stuyvesant.
- After the British conquered the dutch lands in America, English King Charles II gave the title to the lands between New England and Maryland to his brother, James, Duke of York.
- James was adamantly opposed to representative assemblies.
- Residents continued to call for self-government until James relented, only to break this promise when he became James II, King of England.
- The region that would become New Jersey was ruled as a separate proprietary colony; it eventually became a royal colony.
Quakers
- Around 1680/
- Quakers believed human religious institutions were largely unnecessary.
- They thought they could receive revelation directly from God and placed little importance on the Bible.
- They were pacifists and declined to show customary deference to their alleged social superior.
- Quakers' aggressiveness in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in both Britain and American.
- They opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native Americans.
- Elements of this culture would play a role in shaping the characterization of a United States that valued independence and social equality.
William Penn
- 1644-1718.
- Founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for his fellow Quakers.
- Penn advertised his colony widely in Europe and offered generous terms on land.
- Guaranteed a representative assembly and full religious freedom.
- Settlers flocked to Pennsylvania from all over Europe.
Black Slaves in 1600s
- 1600s
- Because black slaves were only a small percentage of the population, they began at almost the same level as indentured servants.
- Later in the century, increased importation and population of blacks in the southern colonies began.
- Slaves, called "chattel," came to be seen as lifelong property whose status would be inherited by their children.
John Locke and Natural Law
- 1632-1704
- Locke was a major English political philosopher of the Enlightenment.
- Isaac Newton theorized Natural Law in the realm of science, and Locke followed him, trying to identify Natural law in the human realm.
- Prior to Locke, their existed a theory of social contract in which people would accept certain restrictions on themselves for the benefit of their society, and these restrictions would be upheld by a sovereign power.
- Locke's assertion of Natural Law changed the perspective of the social contract theory; he believed that if life, liberty, and property were not protected, governments could be overthrown justly.
- Locke's ideas because the indirect theory of American political activity for leaders such as Benjamin Franklin, and they influenced Thomas Jefferson in writing the Declaration of Independence.
Triangular Trade (Atlantic Trade)
- 1600s
- Created as a result of mercantilism.
- European merchants purchased African slaves with goods manufactured in Europe or imported from Asian colonies.
- These merchants sole slaves in the Caribbean for commodities (sugar, cotton, tobacco.)
- Caribbean commodities were later sold in Europe and North America.
- Trade thrived because each partner could get the resources it wanted by exchanged resources that it had available.
Navigation Acts
- 1650-1673.
- Dictated that certain goods shipped from a New World port where to go only to Britain or to another New World port.
- Served as the foundation of England's worldwide commercial system; cam out of the economic philosophy of mercantilism.
- Thought is was meant to benefit the whole British Empire, its provisions helped some New World colonies at the expense of other.
- Intended as a weapon in England's ongoing struggle against its rival, Holland.
- Led to increased tension between Britain and the colonies.
Effects of the Navigation Acts
- 1650-1673.
- Boosted the prosperity of New Englanders, who engaged in large-scale shipbuilding.
- Hurt the residents of the Chesapeake by driving down the price of tobacco.
- Transferred wealth from America to Britain by increasing the prices Americans had to pay for British goods and lowering the prices Americans received for the goods they produced.
- Mercantilism also helped bring on a series of wars between England and Holland in the late 1600s.
Bacon's Rebellion
- 1676.
- Virginia's Royal governor, William Berkeley, received strict instructions to run the colony for the benefit of Britain.
- Nathaniel Bacon, was a leader of colonial frontiersmen in Virginia.
- Bacon objected to the rights granted to Virginia's wealthy inner circle and was angered by Governor Berkeley's inability to protect Virginia from attacks by the Native Americans.
- Bacon commanded two unauthorized raids on native American tribes, increasing his popularity; Berkeley had his arrested.
- Soon after, Bacon gathered his forces, opposed the Royal governor, and set fire to Jamestown to defend his forces' position.
- Berkeley ended the rebellion with the aid of British military forces.
- After Bacon's rebellion, American colonies turned increasingly away from indentured servants and toward slave labor.
New Hampshire
- Corporate colony established 1677.
- King Charles II established it as a Royal colony.
- The colony remained economically dependent on Massachusetts, and Britain continued to appoint a single person to rule both colonies until 1741.
- Weeks before the signing of the Declaration of Independence by the Second Continental Congress, New Hampshire established a temporary constitution for itself that proclaimed its independence from Britain.
Dominion of New England
- 1686-1689.
- An administrative body created by King James II that oversaw British colonies in the New England region.
- Put in place to implement the Navigation Acts and to assist the colonies in defending themselves against hostile French and native American forces.
- The Dominion Governor-in-Chief, Edmund Andros, outlawed town meeting, disputed titles to certain colonial lands, and proselytized on behalf of the Church of England.
- New England colonists had originally been in favor of some sort of voluntary association, but the Dominion was very unpopular because of these types of impositions.
Half-Way Covenant
- 1690s.
- Decision by Puritan colony churches to allow the grandchildren of those who did not have the person experience of conversion to participate in select church affairs.
- Previously, only the children of those who had experienced conversion could participate.
- Reflected the decline of zealous piety among New Englanders.
Salem Witch Trials
- 1692.
- Several young girls in Salem Village claimed to be tormented by the occult activities of certain neighbors.
- Some twenty persons were executed.
- Puritan ministers finally intervened to stop the executions.
- Different theories about the reasons that the trials occurred: political and class divisions in Salem; economic stresses from providing for growing families; the gender-biased view that women were more likely to follow evil.
- Writer Arthur Miller produced "The Crucible" (1953), a retelling of the Salem Witch Trials and a reflective commentary on the witch-hunts of Joseph McCarthy.
The Enlightenment
- 1700s/
- Connects to the idea of Deism, in which the universe was created by God and then abandoned; no supernatural controls would be exerted and all things were explainable by reason.
- Enlightenment philosphy dictated that human reason was adequate to solve mankind's problems and, correspondingly, much less faith was needed in the central role of God as an active force in the universe.
- Idea moved from Europe to become the New World's seed of culture, intellectualism, and society.
- Some important Enlightenment writers include Isaac Newton (Principia Mathematica, 1687), John Locke (Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1689), and Renè Descartes, whose basic tenet of philosophical theory existed in the phrase, "I think, therefore, I am."
Georgia
- Chartered in 1732.
- James Oglethorpe, and English philanthropist and soldier, chartered the colony.
- Settlers included those who paid their won way to receive the best land grants.
0 Some settlers were financed by the colony's board of trustees, including bands of prisoners from British jails.
- After wars between the European empires began, the colony served as a buffer between South Carolina and Spanish-held Florida.
- Elaborate and detailed regulations resulted in relatively little settlement.
John Peter Zenger
- 1697-1746.
- German American newspaper publisher and printer.
- His acquittal of libel charges in New York City (1735) established a legal precedent for freedom of the press.
- The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Warren (195301969) would later reinvigorate free press rights.
- The case of New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) strengthened the protection of the press against libel cases brought by public figures.
The First Great Awakening
- 1720s-1740s.
- A series of emotional religious revivals that occurred throughout the colonies (prevalent in New England.)
- Preachers spread a message of personal repentance and emphasized faith as a way to avoid hell.
- Suggested an equality between God and the Bible.
- George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards became its most dynamic preachers.
- While the Awakening created conflict among those who argued about religion, its ideas helped build connections between the colonies.
- More denomination of Christianity were formed.
- A number of colleges were founded by those who accepted the Great Awakening, including Princeton, Brown, and Rutgers.
Jonathan Edwards
- 1703-1758.
- Preacher of the Great Awakening who emphasized personal religious experience, predestination, and dependence of man upon God and divine grace.
- One of his widely read sermons was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."
- While Edwards is known for being one of the most prominent Calvinists, the Great Awakening was partially responsible for refuting the idea that salvation was only possible with predestined election, an important Calvinist belief.
French and Indian War
- 1748-1763.
- Rivalry between France, Britain, and various Native American tribes over land in the Ohio region.
- It was one of a series of wars fought between France and England throughout the world at the time.
- Battles continued on European and American fronts until Britain gained control of Canada.
- It was in these conflicts that George Washington first appeared as an able military leader.
Albany Plan
- 1754.
- Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for collective defense.
- The Pennsylvanian delegate, Benjamin Franklin, proposed a plan for an intercolonial government, but the plan was rejected by the colonial legislatures as demanding too great a surrender of power.
- While the other colonies showed no support for Franklin's plan, it was an important precedent for the concept of uniting in the face of a common enemy.
William Pitt
1708-1778.
- Britain's capable and energetic prime minister.
- After several humiliating defeats, he led Britain to virtually destroy the French empire in North America by focusing on the French headquarters in Canada.
- The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended hostilities.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
- 1763.
- Ended Seven Years War.
- From France, Britain took Canada ans some of what would become the United States east of the Mississippi River.
- France lost all of its North American holdings.
- Spain took the Louisiana Territory.
- Treaty marked the end of salutary neglect, a relationship in which the British Parliament had somewhat ignored the colonies, allowing them to develop their character without interference.
Impact of the French and Indian War on British Colonial Policy
- 1712-1770.
- Britain set out to solve the large national debt incurred in recent conflicts.
- It created a series of acts that raised taxes on American goods, leading to rebellious activities in the colonies.
- Acts included the Proclamation of 1763, Sugar Act (1763), Stamp Act (1765), and Quartering Act (1765.)
Benjamin Franklin
- 1706-1790.
- Was a colonial writer, scientist, diplomat, printer, and philosopher.
- Published the Pennsylvania Gazette and wrote Poor Richard's Almanac.
- Served in the Second Continental Congress and was a drafter and signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Writs of Assistance
- 1750s-1770s.
- Court orders that authorized customs officials to conduct non-specific searches to stop colonial smuggling.
- Allowed for the searching of homes, warehouses, and shops.
- James Otis served as a prosecutor in a failed Massachusetts legal case; he argued that these searches were contrary to natural law.
- Later, the Fourth Amendment would protect citizens against "unreasonable searches and seizures."
Proclamation of 1763
- 1763.
- Was a result of Pontiac's Rebellion, a Native American uprising against the British for their mistreatment.
- Forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians to reduce friction between Native Americans and the settlers.
- Stated that Native Americans owned the land on which they were residing.
- Outraged colonists believed that the successful outcome of the French and Indian War should have allowed settlement in the Ohio Valley.
Sugar Act
- 1764.
- It taxed goods imported to America to raise revenue for England.
- Meant to assist England in recouping the debt it had taken on during the French and Indian War.
- Strictly enforced, unlike the Molasses Act of 1733.
- Taxed goods included imports such as wine, cloth, coffee, and silk.
Quartering Act
- 1765.
- Act that required the colonies in which British troops were stationed to provide soldiers with bedding and other basic needs.
- Colonists reacted negatively because they feared having a standing army in their towns, and they disliked the additional expenses it caused.
- After the emergence of the United States Constitution, the Third Amendment protected citizens against the stationing of troops in their homes.
Stamp Act
- 1765.
- An internal tax, the sole purpose of which was to raise revenue.
- Required Americans to use "stamped" paper for legal documents, newspapers, and playing cards, among other goods.
- Revenue from this tax was to be used solely for the support of the British soldiers protecting the colonies.
Declaratory Act
- 1766.
- Act giving Britain the power to tax and make laws for Americans in all cases.
- Followed repeal of the Stamp Act, which colonists had seen as a victory.
- The Declaratory Act suggested that Britain might pass more restrictive acts in the near future.
Samuel Adams
- 1722-1803.
- Revolutionary resistance leader in Massachusetts.
- Along with Paul Revere, he headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts.
- Worked with the committees of correspondence, which provided communication about resistance among colonies.
- Attended both the First and Second Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence.
Stamp Act Congress
- October 1765.
- Delegates of seven colonies met in new York to discuss plans for defense.
- Adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which stated that freeborn Englishmen could not be taxed without their consent.
Townshend Acts
- 1767.
- Created by British Prime Minister Charles Townshend (Grenville's replacement.)
- Formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies, such as paper, lead, glass, and tea.
- Replaced the direct taxes of the Stamp Act.
- Led to boycotts by Boston merchants and served as a key contributor to the Boston Massacre.
Virtual Representation
- 1770s.
- English principle stating that the members of parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire, even though members were only elected by a small number of constituents.
- This idea was meant to be a response to the colonial claim of "no taxation without representation," meaning that parliament was itself a representation of those being taxed.
Boston Massacre
- March 5, 1770.
- Occurred when the British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts.
- British soldiers killed five Bostonians, including Crispus Attacks, an American patriot and former slave.
- John Adams provided the legal defense for the soldiers.
- Though the British soldiers acted moreor less in self-defense, anti-Royal leaders used the massacre to spur action in the colonies.
Tea Act and Boston Tea Party
- 1773.
- The Tea Act was a concession that allowed the British East India Company to ship tea directly to America and sell it at a bargain.
- Because the cheap tea undercut the costs of local merchants, colonists opposed these shipments; they turned back ships, left shipments to rot, and held ships in port.
- Led to the Boston Tea Party in December or 1773, where citizens, dressed as Native Americans, destroyed tea on the British ships.
The Intolerable Acts (The Coercive Acts)
- 1774.
- Names given by colonists to the Quebec Act (1774) and to a series of acts by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party.
- Closed the Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the lost tea.
- Increased the power of Massachusetts' Royal governor at the expense of the legislature.
- Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tries elsewhere.
Methods of Colonial Resistance
- 1770s.
- Colonists reacted first with restrained and respectful petitions against the British, suggesting "taxation without representation is tyranny."
- Colonial governments organized "committees of correspondence" to share their view of British actions with neighboring colonies and with foreign governments; this was the start of political organization among the colonies.
- Colonial merchants then boycotted British goods (non-importation.)
- Colonists finally turned to violence; crowed took action against customs officials and against merchants who violated the boycotts.
- Some colonists continued to follow British command and became English "Loyalists."
First Continental Congress
- September-October 1774.
- Meeting in Philadelphia of colonial representatives to denounce the Intolerable Acts and to petition the British Parliament.
- A few radical members discussed breaking from England.
- Created Continental Association and forbade the importation and use of British goods.
- Agreed to convene a Second Continental Congress in May 1775.
Battles of Concord and Lexington
- April 1775.
- Concord: Site suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry.
- Paul Revere, William Dawes,s and others detected movement of British troops toward Concord and warned militia and gathered Minutemen at Lexington.
- Lexington: Militia and Royal infantry fought, and the colonial troops withdrew.
The Second Continental Congress
- May 1775.
- Colonial representative meeting in Philadelphia, over which John Hancock presided.
- The group was torn between declaring independence and remaining under British power.
- Moderates forced the adoption of the Olive Branch Petition, a letter to King George III appealing one final time for a resolution to all disputes; the king refused to receive it.
- The Congress sent George Washington to command the army around Boston.
- American ports were opened in defiance of the Navigation Acts.
- The Congress wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Battle of Bunker Hill
- June 17, 1775.
- Bunker Hill was an American post overlooking Boston.
- The stronghold allowed Americans to contain General Gage and his troops.
- The colonists twice turned back a British frontal assault, and they held off the British until the Bunker Hill force ran out of ammunition and was overrun.
- American strong defense led to a strengthened morale.
Common Sense
- January 1776.
- Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that called for immediate independence from Britain.
- It was sold throughout the colonies, where it gained popularity.
- Common Sense helped weaken resistance in the Continental Congress toward independence.
Lee's Resolutions
- 1776.
- Presented to Second Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia.
- Urged Congress to declare independence and were accepted July 2 of 1776.
- Said, "That the United Colonies are, and of right out to be, free and independent States."
Declaration of Independence
- Declaration adopted July 4, 1776.
- Document restating political ideas justifying the separation from Britain.
- Thomas Jefferson and his committee had the duty of drafting for the Continental Congress.
- John Locke's influences served as a foundation for the document.
- The final product lacked provisions condemning the British slave trade and a denunciation of the British people that earlier drafts had contained.
Articles of Confederation
- Submitted July 1776; ratified 1781.
- Framework for an American national government in which states were given the most power.
- Permitted the federal government to make war, offer treaties,and create new states.
- There was no federal power to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce.
- Congressional revision of the articles created a weak national government.
George Washington's Leadership in the American Revolution
- 1775-1781.
- Named Commander--in-chief of Continental Forces in June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress.
- Forced British to evacuate Boston in March 1776.
- Defeated British at Trenton, New Jersey, after crossing the Delaware on December 25, 1776.
- Survived tough winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778); Washington strengthened his troops during the winter and gained tremendous respect among the men.
- General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington on October 19, 1781.
Battle of Saratoga
- 1777.
- American Revolution battle fought in northern New York.
- The British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they failed to mobilize properly.
- The British ended up surrendering, allowing for the first great American victory.
- Demonstrated that the British could more easily hold the cities, but that they would have trouble subduing the countrysides.
- Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle.
Charles Cornwallis
- 1738-1805.
- British military and political leader.
- Was a member of Parliament.
- Opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution.
- Led British forces during the American Revolution.
- The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown in 1781.
Western Land Cessions
- 178101787; Georgia in 1802.
- The original thirteen states ceded their western land claims to the new federal government.
- The states that lacked western land claims feared that states with claim could grow in size, skewing representation in the federal government.
- Before signing the United States Constitution, these states demanded that those with claims cede the land.
- Ordinances in 1784 and 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance (1787) organized the ceded areas in preparation for statehood.
- New states were organized and admitted to the Union.
- This policy strengthened the ties of western farmers to the central government.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
- 1783.
- Peace settlement that ended the Revolutionary War.
- The United States was represented by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.
- Britain recognized the United States' independence and outlined its borders.
- The United States received all lands east of the Mississippi River, north of Florida, and south of the Great Lakes.
- The United States agreed that Loyalists (those who had supported Britain) were not to be persecuted.
Land Ordinance of 1785; Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- 1785; 1787.
- The Land Ordinance was an act of Congress that sole western lands in order to settle that territory and to earn revenue for the federal government.
- The Land Ordinance organized the distribution of land into townships and set aside a section of each township to be used for public education.
- The Northwest Ordinance described how the land north of the Ohio River should be divided and helped to create five new states.
- The Northwest Ordinance held that states would be admitted to the Union when the number of free inhabitants reached 60,000; slavery and involuntary servitude were now allowed in these states.
- The Northwest Ordinance set a precedent of how states could join the Union and stood as a successful accomplishment by a federal government that had been seen before as ineffective.
John Jay
- 1745-1829
- Member of First and Second Continental Congress.
- Negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jay's Treaty.
- First Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
- Wrote portions of the Federalist Papers.
Shay's Rebellion
- 1786-1787.
- During a period of economic depression, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmer's land and enacting debt collection.
- Citizens of Boston raised an army and suppressed the rebels.
- Americans felt pressure to strengthen the government and avoid future violence.
- The rebellion served as a catalyst for writing the Constitution.
The Constitution of the United States
- Signed September 17, 1787, and ratified by the required nine states June 21, 1788.
- Drafted at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787.
- Included a preamble and seven articles.
- Created a stronger federal government.
- The Bill of Rights constitutes the first ten amendments, and it protects individual rights and freedoms.
Elastic Clauses and the Tenth Amendment
- Ratified 1791.
- The Tenth Amendment restricts the federal government to those powers delegated to it by the Constitution and gives all other powers to the states, or the people.
- Article I, Section 8 grants the federal government the power to make all laws "which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers."
- The conflict between these two ideas is the determination of which group, the federal government or the states and their people, has the right to exercise powers that have not been expressly delegated to the central government.
The Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan
- July 1787.
- Virginia Plan: Presented by Edmund Randolph and written by James Madison, it called for a bicameral legislature based on a state's population, and it suggested that both the chief executive and judiciary should be chosen by legislature.
- New Jersey Plan: Presented by William Patterson, it called for a unicameral legislature with equal representation for each state.
- The plans were united in the Great Compromise.
- They formed the basis of the modern American legislative structure.
Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise.)
- 1787.
- Called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress.
- Combined pieces of the New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan, and other proposals.
- Included the Three-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves a three-fifths of a person for purposes of apportioning representation and called for direct taxation on the states.
Federalists
- 1788.
- Americans who advocated centralized power and constitutional ratification.
- Used The Federalist papers to demonstrate how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power.
- Supporters of Federalist platforms included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups.
- Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the Constitution (they had a "loose interpretation" of the Constitution."
Anti-Federalists
- 1780s-1790s.
- Those against the adoption of the Constitution; they were suspicious of political actions that would limit freedom and of a centralized government that would rule at a distance.
- George mason, Patrick Henry, and George Clinton were Anti-Federalists.
- Many of the Anti-Federalists would come to oppose the policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists.
- The Jeffersonian Republican Party absorbed many of the Anti-Federalists after the Constitution was adopted.
George Washington
- 1789-1797.
- First President.
- Was unanimously elected.
- Served two terms.
- His leadership led to a standard of a strong presidency with control of foreign policy and the power to veto Congress's legislation.
- Declared the Proclamation of Neutrality in April 1793, keeping the United States neutral in the European wars.
- His Farewell Address in 1796 warned against entangling alliances, recommended isolationism, and warned of political party factions
Judiciary Act of 1789
- 1789
- Provided for a Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and five associates.
- Established the office of the Attorney General.
- Created federal district courts and circuit courts.
Alexander Hamilton
- 1757-1804.
- First Secretary of Treasury.
- Proposed the Federal assumption of states debts, the establishment of a national bank, and the federal stimulation of industry through excise tax and tariffs.
- Opponents, including Jefferson, saw his programs as aiding a small, elite group at the expense of the average citizen.
- Hamilton died from wounds sustained in a pistol duel with Aaron Burr, Jefferson's vice president.
Jeffersonian Republicans (Democratic-Republicans)
- 1792-1860.
- Political party that absorbed the Anti-Federalists.
- Proponents included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
- Favored states' rights and power in the hands of commoners; supported by Southern agriculture and frontiersmen.
- Believed that the federal government was denied all powers that were not expressly given to it by the Constitution (a "strict interpretation" of the document.)
- Supported the French Revolution's ideals, but they were against the Revolution's bloody radicalism.
Eli Whitney
- 1765-1825.
- Inventor and manufacturer.
- Invented the cotton gin in 1793, revolutionizing the cotton industry and increasing the need for slaves.
- Established first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable, standardized parts.
- His innovations led to an "American system" of manufacture, where those laborers with less skill could use tools and templates to make identical parts; also, the manufacture and assembly of pats could be done separately.
Jay's Treaty
- 1794.
- An attempt to settle the conflict between the United States and England over commerce, navigation, and violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
- Provided for eventual evacuation by the British of their post in the Northwest, but it allowed them to continue their fur trade.
- Allowed for the establishment of commissions to settle United States-Canadian border disputes and United States-Britain losses during the Revolutionary War.
- The generous terms to Britain upset Americans because these were promises that had been made and not fulfilled in the Treaty pf Paris of 1783.
Whiskey Rebellion
- 1794.
- Western whiskey farmers refused to pay taxes on which Hamilton's revenue program was based.
- A group of farmers terrorized the tax collectors, and Washington responded with a federalized militia.
- George Washington and Alexander Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania themselves to emphasized their commitment.
- First test of federal authority.
- Established federal government's right to enforce laws.
Pickney Treaty
- 1795.
- Signed by the United States and Spain.
- Free navigation of the Mississippi River was given to the United States.
- United States gained area north of Florida that had been in dispute (present-day Mississippi and Alabama.)
- Gave western farmers the "right of deposit" in New Orleans, enabling them to use the port for their goods and making it easier for them to get their goods to the east.
- The United States would later make the Louisiana Purchase, which would cement this right of deposit.
Early American Literature and Art
- 1600s-1700s.
- Early writings promoted the benefits of colonization to both Europeans and to the colonies themselves; authors included John Smith and William Penn.
- Religious issues and the Great Awakening provided material for written works by John Winthrop, Edward Winslow, Roger Williams, Jonathan Edwards, and George Whitefield.
- The political issues of revolution influenced writing in the mid-1700s, including works by Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Paine.
- Post-war writings such as The Federalist Papers explored the system of American values and governmental structure.
- The first American novel, published in 1789, was William Hill Brown's The Power of Sympathy.
- Art copied European styles but featured portraits of important Americans; famous artists included John Trumbull, Charles Peale, Benjamin West, and John Copley.
- Gilbert Stuart painted the portrait of George Washington that is now on the one-dollar bill.
John Adams
- 1797-1800.
- Second president.
- First vice president.
- Diplomat and signer of the Declaration of Independence.
- Led the country through the XYZ affair, the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
- Kept the nation from war during his tenure as president.
XYZ Affair
- 1789.
- The United States wanted an end to French harassment of American shipping.
- To settle the issue, French representatives demanded a bribe from the United States just to open negotiations with French Minister Talleyrand.
- The United States refused the bribe and suspended trade with the French.
- Led to the creation of the American Navy.
Alien and Sedition Acts
- 1789-1799.
- Legislation enacted by the Federalists to reduce foreign influences and increase their power.
- New hurdles to citizenship were established.
- Broadened power to quiet print media critics.
- The legislation was used to silence Jeffersonian Republican critics of the Federalists and was indicative of the poisoned relations between the two groups.
- These acts tested the strength of the First Amendment and limited the freedom of the press.
- The Federalists gained a reputation as being a less democratic group, quickening their demise as a political organization.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
- 1789-1799.
- Response by Jeffersonian Republicans to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
- Included text written by Jefferson and by Madison.
- Suggested that states should have the power within their territory to nullify federal law.
- Stated that federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it.
- The resolutions represented a future argument that would be used when secession and Civil War threatened the country.
- Called into question the paradox of the Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment.
The Napoleonic Wars
- 1799-1815.
- War between Napoleon's France and the other European powers, led by Britain.
- Both sides tried to prevent neutral powers, especially the United States, from trading with their enemy.
- American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were "impressed," or forced, into the British navy.
- The United States was angered by this violation of the "freedom of the seas" principle, which holds that outside its territorial waters, a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas.
- These violations would escalate and lead to the War of 1812.
Judiciary Act of 1801
- 1801.
- Created new judeships to be filled by the president.
- John Adams filled the vacancies with party supporters ("Midnight Judges") before he left office.
- Led to bitter resentment by the incoming Jeffersonian Republican Party.
- Act would play a role in the case of Marbury v. Madison.
Thomas Jefferson
-1801-1809.
- Third president.
- Author of the Declaration of Independence.
- Before becoming president, he served as the first Secretary of State.
- First president to reside in Washington, D.C.
- Jefferson's taking office was called the "Revolution of 1800" as it was the first time American changed presidential political leadership (Federalist to Jeffersonian Republican.)
- His embodiment of the Jeffersonian Republican party helped increase its strength, while weak leadership in the Federalist Party was a reason for its demise.
- His administration was responsible for the Embargo of 1807.
- He presided over the Louisiana Purchase.
- His politics were characterized by support of states' rights.
John Marshall
- 1755-1835.
- Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1801-1835.)
- He was a Federalist installed by Adams.
- His decisions defined and strengthened the powers of the judicial branch and asserted the power of judicial review over federal legislation.
- His court made determinations that cemented a static view of contracts.
- His court's decisions advanced capitalism.
- Significant cases included Marbury v. Madison, Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden.
Marbury v. Madison
- 1803.
- William Marbury had been commissioned justice of the peace in D.C. by President John Adams.
- His commission was part of Adams' "midnight appointments" during his last days in office.
- Marbury's commission was not delivered, so he sued President Jefferson's Secretary of State, James Madison.
- Chief Justice John Marshall held that while Marbury was entitled to the commission, the statute that allowed Marbury's remedy was unconstitutional, as it granted the Supreme Court powers beyond what the Constitution permitted.
- This decision paved the way for judicial review, which gave courts the power to declare statues unconstitutional.
Louisiana Purchase
- April 30, 1803.
- Purchased for $15 million from France.
- Jefferson was concerned about the constitutionality of purchasing land without having this authority granted by the Constitution, so he employed the presidential power of treaty-making to make the purchase.
- United States' territory was doubled.
- The purchased helped remove France from the Western borders of the United States.
- Farmers could now send their goods (furs, grains, tobacco) down the Mississippi River and through New Orleans, facilitating transportation to Europe.
- The expansion westward created more states with Jeffersonian Republican representation to the point that the Federalists became a marginalized party.
- Opened land to agrarian expansion, helping fulfill one of the tenets of Jefferson's social ideology.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
- 1803-1806.
= Expedition through the Louisiana Purchase and the West.
- Departed from St. Louis and explored areas including the Missouri River, the Yellowstone River, and the Rockies.
- Sacajawea, a Shoshone guide, helped them in their journey.
- Opened up new territories to American expansion.
Embargo of 1807
- 1807-1809.
- American declaration to keep its own ships from leaving port for any foreign destination.
- Jefferson hoped to avoid contact with vessels of either of the warring sides of the Napoleonic Wars.
- Re result was economic depression in the United States, which angered the Federalists, who were well-represented in Northeast commerce and were hit hard by the financial downturn.
James Madison
- 1809-1817.
- Fourth president.
- His work before becoming president led him to be considered the "Father of the Constitution."
- Participated in the writing of The Federalist Papers.
- In congress, he wrote the Virginia Plan.
- Was a Republican in a Federalist-controlled Congress.
- Faced pressure from "War Hawks" like Henry Clay and John C Calhoun to get involved in the Napoleonic Wars and end the damaging embargo.
- Led the United States into the War of 1812 and concluded the war in 1814.
Non-Intercourse Act
- 1809.
- Congress opened trade to all nations except France and Britain.
- Trade boycott appeared to have little effect on curbing French and British aggression stemming from the Napoleonic Wars.
- Though the Embargo Act was a protective measure, the Non-Intercourse Act reengaged the United States in trade while continuing its stance against alliances with either France or Britain.
- The Non-Intercourse Act was repealed in 1810.
Fletcher v. Peck
- 1810.
- Marshall Court decision.
- The first time state law was voided on the grounds that it violated a principle of the United States Constitution.
- The Georgia legislature had issued extensive land grants in a corrupt deal.
The Supreme Court decided that the original contract was valid, regardless of the corruption.
- Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts.
Expansion of Electorate, 1810-1828
- 1810-1828.
- Most states eliminated the property qualifications for voting during this period.
- African Americans were still excluded from polls across the South and most of the North.
- The political parties established national nomination conventions.
Tecumseh
- 1811.
- Native American chief who was encouraged by British forces to fight against the pressured removal of native Americans from Western territories.
- William Henry Harrison destroyed the united Native American confederacy at Tippecanoe.
Causes of the War of 1812
- 1812-1815.
- British impressment of American soldiers.
- The United States suspected the British of encouraging Native American rebellion.
- "War Hawk" Congressional leaders, such as Henry Clay and John Calhoun, pressed for interveition.
- American frontiersmen wanted more free land, as the West was held by Native Americans and the British.
- War Hawks also wanted to annex Canada and Florida.
- Despite the Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse Act, hostilities could not be cooled.
- Eventually, the United States sided with France against Britain.
War of 1812 Events
- 1812.
- Early victories at sea by the United States before it was overpowered by the British.
- The United States' Admiral Perry took lake Erie with the navy.
- Opened the way for William Henry Harrison to invade Canada and defeat the British and Native American forces.
- Andrew Jackson led the American charge through the Southwest.
- The Battle of New Orleans was a decisive conflict in which Andrew Jackson defeated the British; the battle was fought after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.
Washington Burned
- 1814.
- During the War of 1812, a British armada sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and burned the White House.
- Attack came in response to the American burning of Toronto.
- The armada proceeded toward Baltimore; America's Fort McHenry held firm through bombardment, which inspired Francis Scott Key's "Defense of Fort McHenry" (later renamed" The Star-Spangled Banner."
After the War of 1812
- Post-1814.
- Increased American nationalism.
- Created high foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco.
- The country turned from its agrarian origins toward industrialization.
- Led to a depression in 1819 due to influx of British goods; the Bank of the United States responded by tightening credit to slow inflation
Rush-Bagot Agreement
- 1817.
- The Treaty of Ghent, which ended hostilities after the War of 1812, set the groundwork for this agreement by encouraging both sides to continue to study boundary issues between the United States and Canada.
- Rush-Bagot was an agreement between Britain and the United States to stop maintaining armed fleets on the Great Lakes.
- Served as the first "disarmament" agreement and laid the foundation for future positive relations between Canada and the United States
James Monroe
- 1817-1825.
- Fifth president.
- Led during the "Era of Good Feelings," which was marked by the domination of his political party, the Democratic-Republicans, and the decline of the Federalist Party.
- Established the Monroe Doctrine as a wide-ranging policy for foreign affairs.
- National identity grew, most notably through the westward movement of the country and various public works projects.
- The "Era" saw the beginnings of North-South tensions over slavery.
Monroe Doctrine
- Introduced in 1823.
- Developed by president James Monroe.
- Held that the United States would not allow foreign powers to establish new colonies in the western hemisphere or allow existing colonies to be influenced by outside powers.
- America feared international influence because of a period of worldwide revolutionary fervor after Napoleon's fall.
- Another cause: Many Latin American countries were gaining independence from Spain, and the United States thought that these colonies might be taken over by other European powers, threatening American security.
- The doctrine had a lasting impact beyond Monroe's time in office; other presidents, from Coolidge to Kennedy, have invoked it to deal with their own foreign affairs issues.
Convention of 1818
- 1818.
- Provided for boundary between the United States and Canada at the forty-ninth parallel.
- Allowed joint occupancy of Oregon Territory by Americans and Canadians.
- Permitted American fishermen to fish in the waters of Newfoundland and Labrador.
McCulloch v. Maryland
- 1819.
- Marshall Court decision.
- Determined that no state could control an agency of the federal government.
- Maryland tried to levy a tax on a local branch of the United States Bank to protect its own banks.
- Supreme Court determined such state action violated Congress' "implied powers" to operate a national bank.
- Use of judicial review over state law made this a division of powers case.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
- 1819.
- Marshall Court decision.
- Severely limited the power of state governments to control corporations, which were the emerging form of business.
- New Hampshire legislature tried to change Dartmouth from a private to a public institution by having its charter revoked.
- The Court ruled that the charter issued during colonial days still constituted a contract and could not be arbitrarily changed without the consent of both parties.
- Reaffirmed the sanctity of contracts.
Adams-Onis Treaty
- 1819.
- Helped define the United States-Mexico border.
- The border that was under Spanish control had created conflict between the two countries.
- Spain sold its remaining Florida territory to the United States and drew the boundary of Mexico to the Pacific.
- United States ceded its claims to Texas, and Spain kept California and the New Mexico region.
- United States assumed $5 million in debts owed by Spain to American merchants.
- Later, lands kept by Spain would become battlegrounds for American expansion.
King Cotton in the Early 1800s
- Early 1800s.
- The new invention of the cotton gin separated the seeds from the fibers.
- New states (such as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) began producing cotton.
- Led to a boom in the cotton market, and its global effects crowned the staple as "King Cotton."
- The need for cotton encouraged westward expansion.
Transportation Revolution
- First half of the 1800s.
- Innovations included new construction of roads, additions of canals, and the expansion of the railroads.
- Robert Fulton built the modern-day steamboat, transforming river transportation.
- Henry Clay promoted internal improvements to help develop transportation.
- The transportation revolution cheapened the market for trade and encouraged population movement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Second Great Awakening and Protestant Revivalism
- 1790s-1840s.
- A wave of religious fervor spread through a series of camp meeting revivals.
- The "Burnt Over District," an area in upstate New York, was the center of the movement.
- Protestant revivalism rejected the Calvinist doctrine of predestination and held instead that salvation was in the individual's hands.
- Revivalism was a reaction to rationalism, emphasizing strong nationalism, and the improvement of society through social reform.
- Revivalism included participation by women and African Americans, demonstrating the influence and growth of democracy.
- Created diversity in American religious sects and some anti-Catholic sentiment.
Antebellum Reform
- 1820-1860.
- Explosion in the number of colleges (Oberlin College in Ohio became the first co-ed college.)
- Expansion of state-supported elementary schools and other public schooling, in part due to the leadership of Horace Mann.
- Dorothea Dix led in the establishment of asylums for humane treatment of the insane.
- Prisons were also reformed.
Dorothea Dix
- 1802-1887.
- Social reformer who worked to help the mentally ill.
- Northeastern jails housed both criminals and the mentally ill in the same facilities.
- Dix became determined to change this.
- Her memorandum to the Massachusetts state legislature in 1842 led to the establishment of state hospitals for the insane.
The Lowell System
- 1820s.
- A popular way of staffing New England factories.
- Young women were hired from the surrounding countryside, brought to town, and housed in dorms in mill towns for a short period.
- The owners called these "factories in the garden" to spread the idea that these facilities would not replicate the dirty, corrupt mills in English towns.
- The rotating labor supply benefited owners, as no unions could be formed against them.
- The system depended on technology to increase production.
Slave Codes
- 1650s-1860s.
- A series of laws that limited slave rights.
- Slave owners were given authority to impose harsh physical punishment and to control their slaves in any fashion they sought, without court intervention.
- Prohibited slaves from owning weapons, become educated, meeting with other African Americans without permission, and testifying against whites in the court.
- Severely limited the rights of slaves.
Washington Irving
- 1783-1859.
- In his time, he was the best-known native writer in the United States and one of the first American writers to gain fame throughout Europe.
- His satire is considered some of the first great comic literature written by an American.
- Stories included Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleep Hollow (both in 1820.)
- His writings reflected an increasing nationalism, as the stories were based in American settings.
Transcendentalism
- 1820-1850.
- Movement to transcend the bounds of the intellect and to strive for emotional unity with God.
- Believed that people were capable of unity with God without the help of the institutional church.
- Saw church as reactionary and stifling to self-expression.
- Included writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Utopian Communities
- 1820-1850.
- Movement that copied early European efforts at utopianism.
- Attempt by cooperative communities to improve life in the face of increasing industrialism.
- Groups practiced social experiments that generally saw little success due to their radicalism.
- Two of these communities were Brook Farm and Oneida.
Romanticism
- 1800s.
- A belief in the innate goodness of man, nature, and traditional values, rooted in turn-of-the-century Europe.
- Emphasized emotions and feeling over rationality.
- Reaction against the excess of the Enlightenment led to a growing push for social reform.
Missouri Compromise
- 1820.
- Henry Clay's solution to deadlock over the issue of accepting proposed new state, Missouri.
- At the time, the Senate was evenly divided between slave and free states.
- A slave state of Missouri would tip the balance of power.
- John Tallmadge added an antislavery amendment meant to prohibit the growth of slavery into Missouri and to free slaves already in Missouri when they had reached a certain age.
- The Tallmadege Amendment caused the Senate to block the Missouri Compromise and sparked heated debate about the future of slavery.
- To settle to dispute, northern Massachusetts became a new free state (Maine.)
- The legislative section prohibiting slavery in Missouri was replaced by a clause stating that all land of the Louisiana Purchase north of thirty-six-thirty north latitude would prohibit slavery.
Denmark Vesey
- 1767(?)-1822.
- A slave who won enough money in a lottery to buy his own freedom.
- Gained wealth and influence in South Carolina.
- Accused of using church get-togethers to plan a violent slave revolt.
- Vesey and thirty-four other slaves were hanged.
- Some historians doubt the conspiracy was real.
Gibbons v. Ogden
- 1824
- Marshall Court Decision.
- Determined that only Congress may regulate interstate commerce, including navigation.
- Ogden received a monopoly to operate a steamboat between new York and New Jersey; New York granted him the monopoly through Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston.
- Gibbons received the same rights through Congress.
- Supreme Court decided that the state monopoly was void.
- Use of judicial review over state law made this a division of powers case.
Hudson River School
- 1825-1875.
- Group of American landscape painters.
- Part of increasing American nationalism following the War of 1812.
- The influence of the European Romantic movement led many American artists to paint their homeland.
- Depicted important landscapes such as Niagara Falls, the Catskills, the Rocky Mountains, and the Hudson River Valley.
Artists included Thomas Doughty, Thomas Cole, George Inness, and S.F.B. Morse.
James Fenimore Cooper
- 1789-1851.
- American novelist born in Burlington, New Jersey.
- His writing was influenced by the American frontier and America's landscapes.
- His works include The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Water-Witch (1830), and The American Democrat (1838.)
- His work, along with that of writers like Washington Irving, helped form the foundation for distinctive American literature.
John James Audubon
- 1785-1851.
- Romantic-era artist.
- Member of the Hudson River School, a group of landscape painters.
- Demonstrated the emotion of nature, especially birds and animals.
- In 1886, a nature organization took his name.
"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
- 1824.
- Four presidential candidates: Henry Clay (Speaker of the House), John Quincy Adams (Secretary of State), Andrew Jackson (1812 war hero), and William Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury.)
- Jackson won the popular vote but did not win the majority of the electoral vote, and as a result, the election went to the House of Representatives.
- In the House of Representatives vote, Henry Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams, who would to on to win the presidency.
- Adams gave Clay the post of Secretary of State.
- Accusations of a "corrupt bargain" were made by Jackson, but they are considered to be largely untrue.
John Quincy Adams
- 1825-1829.
- Sixth president.
- His supports called themselves National Republicans (Jackson supporters labeled themselves Democratic-Republicans.)
- Led an active federal government in areas like internal improvements and Native American affairs.
- His policies proved unpopular amidst sectional interest and conflicts over states' rights.
- After his presidency, he served in the House of Representatives, where he forced debates against slavery and against the Jacksonian policy of removing certain Native American tribes.
"Tariff of Abominations"
- 1828.
- Tariff bill with higher import duties for many goods bought by southern planters.
- John C. Calhoun, John Q. Adams's Vice President, anonymously protested his own leadership's bill, suggesting that a federal law harmful to an individual state could be declared void within that state.
- This suggestion of nullification would be utilized by other states and would escalate hostilities, leading to the Civil War.
John Calhoun
- 1782-1850.
- Vice President to both John Q. Adams and to Adams's political rival, Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in 1828.
- Champion of states' rights.
- Author on an essay, "The South Carolina Exposition and Protest," advocating nullification of Tariff of 1828 and asserting the right of the states to nullify federal laws.
- Later, as a senator, he engaged Senator Daniel Webster in a debate over slavery and states' rights, demonstrating the ideas that would drive the country to the Civil War.
Andrew Jackson
- 1829-1837.
- Seventh president.
- Following the War of 1812, he invaded Spanish Florida to quell Native American rebellions.
- After the treaty for the War of 1812 had already been signed, he defeated a British force that had invaded New Orleans, safeguarding the Mississippi River.
- Popular president due to his image as the self-made westerner.
- His form of leadership, known as Jacksonian Politics, called for a strong executive, relied on the party system, and emphasized states' rights.
- Implemented the Spoils System approach to civil service.
- Signed the Indian Removal Act, which provided for federal enforcement to remove Native American tribes west of the Mississippi.
Spoils System
- 1828.
- Andrew Jackson's method of turning over the civil servant jobs to new government officials.
- "Rotation in office" was supposed to democratize government and lead to reform by allowing the common people to fun the government.
- This system had been in place long before Jackson, but his name is tied to it because he endorsed its usage.
- In general, officials were replaced by those loyal to the new administration, and they were not always the most qualified for the positions.
- Over the span of several presidential terms, the system led to corruption and inefficiency.
- It was ended with the passage of the Pendleton Act.
Alexis de Tocqueville
- Early 1830s.
- French civil servant who traveled to and wrote about the United States.
- Wrote Democracy in America, reflecting his interest in the American democratic process and appreciation of American civil society.
- Assessed the American attempt to have both liberty and equality.
- Provided an outsider's objective view of the Age of Jackson.
Mormonism
- 1830.
- Religion founded by Joseph Smith, Jr.
- Smith claimed to have received sacred writings; he organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
- Smith described a vision from God in which God declared specific tenets of Christianity to be abominations.
- Because of these claims and unusual practices such as polygamy, Mormons were shunned.
- Eventually, Mormons formed a community near Great Salt Lake under Brigham Young's leadership.
- Settlement became the State of Utah.
Webster-Hayne Debate
- 1830.
- Debate in the Senate between Daniel Webster (MA) and Robert Hayne (SC) that focused on sectionalism and nullification.
- Came after the "Tariff of Abominations" incident.
- At issue was the source of constitutional authority: Was the Union derived from an agreement between states or from the people who had sought a guarantee of freedom?
- Webster stated, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, and one and inseparable."
Nat Turner
- 1800-1831.
- Slave who led an insurrection in Southampton, Virginia, in 1831.
- Influential among local slaves as a preacher.
- Believed it was his destiny to lead slaves to freedom.
- Led approximately sixty in revolt, first killing the family of his owner and then killing fifty-five whites in the surrounding neighborhood.
- The revolt was put down and Turner, some of his conspirators, and several free African Americans were executed.
- Led to stricter slave laws in the South and an end to the Southern organizations advocating abolition.
Tariff of 1832 and the Order of Nullification
- 1832.
- The tariff favored Northern interests at the expense of Southern ones.
- Calhoun led a state convention calling for the Order of Nullification, which declared that the tariff laws were void and that South Carolina would resist by force any attempt to collect that tariffs.
- Jackson, though a supporter of states' rights, defended the Union above all, and asked Congress to issue a new bill to give him authority to collect tariffs by force.
- Jackson encouraged his allies to prepare a compromise bill so that the federal government would not lose its image of control and so that South Carolina could back down from nullification.
- Henry Clay presented this Compromise Tariff of 1833 and South Carolina withdrew the Order, but tensions between the federal government and state governments grew.
Biddle's Banks
- 1832.
- Andrew Jackson objected to the Bank of the United States created by Alexander Hamilton.
- Jackson felt that the Bank had great influence in national affairs but did not respond to the will of working and rural class people.
- Henry Clay wanted the Bank to be a political issue for the upcoming presidential election in 1832 against Andrew Jackson.
- Nicholas Biddle, chairman of the Bank, worked with Clay to re-charter the Bank four years earlier than it was due.
- Jackson vetoed the measure, increasing his popularity.
Texas, Leading to the Battle of the Alamo
- 1800s.
- Mexico refused to sell Texas to the United States, which had given up its claims to Texas in the Adams-Onis treaty.
- Texas had been a state in the Republic of Mexico since 1822, following a revolution against Spain.
- Mexico offered land grants for immigrants to the area, and many Americans responded and came to Texas, increasing population and revenue in Texas.
- Southerners moved to Mexico with interest in becoming slave masters, but the presence of slavery angered the Mexican government.
- When the population changed, Mexico's power began to erode.
- Stephen Austin worked to first make Texas a Mexican state and later independent of Mexico.
Battle of the Alamo
- February 24-march 6, 1836.
- During Texas's revolution against mexico, Fort Alamo was attacked by the Mexican Army and 187 members of the Texas garrison were killed.
- Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, a Mexican military and political leader, was victorious.
- "Remember the Alamo" was the garrison's battle cry in its fight for independence.
Sam Houston
- 1793-1863.
- Leader of Texas independence.
- Defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto and claimed independence.
- Houston asked both President Jackson and President Van Buren to recognize Texas as a state, which they denied out of fear that a new slave state would be formed.
Gag Rule
- 1836-1844.
- Forbade discussion of the slavery question in the House of Representatives.
- Stemmed from Southern members' fear of slave emancipation.
- Led to increased discussion by Southern conventions of ways to escape Northern economic and political hegemony.
The Panic of 1837 and Specie Circular
- 1837.
- Recession caused by President Jackson's drastic movement of federal bank deposits to state and local banks.
- Led to relaxed credit policies and inflation.
- Jackson demanded a Specie Circular, which required that land be paid for in hard money and not paper for credit.
- Recession lasted into the 1840s.
The Charles River Bridge Case
- 1837.
- Demonstrated that a contract could be broken to benefit the general welfare.
- Jackson's chief justice, Roger Taney, held that a state could cancel grant money if the grant ceased to be in the interests of the community.
- Served as a reversal of Dartmouth College v. Woodward.
Trail of Tears
- 1838-1839.
- Worcester v. Georgia was a response to Jackson's Indian Removal Act.
- Cherokees in Georgia claimed to be a sovereign political entity.
- Native Americans were supported by the Supreme Court, but Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the court's decision.
- By this point, Cherokees had largely met the government's demands to assimilate into Western-style democratic institutions.
- Still, Cherokees were forced to give up lands to the east of the Mississippi and travel to an area in present-day Oklahoma.
- The migration's effects were devastating as hunger, disease, and exhaustion killed about 4,000 Cherokee.
Horace Mann
- 1796-1859.
- American educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education.
- Suggested reforms in education.
- Made available high-quality, no-cost, nondenominational public schooling.
-The system has lasted to present day, and as a result, Mann has been called the father of the American public school.
Whig Party
- 1840s.
- Group stemmed from the old Federalist Party, the old national Republican Party, and others who opposed Jackson's policies.
- Cultivated commercial and industrial development.
- Encouraged banks and corporations.
- Had a cautious approach to westward expansion.
- Received support largely from Northern business and manufacturing interests and from large Southern planters.
- Included Calhoun, Clay, and Webster.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
- 1803-1882.
- Transcendentalist essayist and lecturer.
- Self-Reliance (1841), one of his essays, promoted the virtue of independence.
- Through the themes in his writings and through the independent lifestyle he lived, Emerson strongly influenced American thought and culture.
Abolitionism
- 1830s through Civil War.
- Began with the idea of purchasing and transporting slaves to free African states, which had little success.
- Anti-slavery societies founded it, and some faced violent opposition.
- The movement split into two: 1) radical followers and 2) those who petitioned Congress.
- Entered politics through the Liberty Party, calling for non-expansion of slavery into new western territories.
- The Liberty Party would eventually combine with the larger Free Soil Party.
William Lloyd Garrison
- 1805-1879.
- His newspaper, The Liberator, espoused his vies that slaves should be immediately emancipated.
- Many other anti-slavery advocates of the 1830s and 1840s recommended a gradualist approach.
- Because of his inflexible position and the fiery language he used in his paper, opposition to his policy developed within abolitionist groups.
- Garrison also advocated an unpopular position in favor of equal rights for women.
- After the Civil War, he promoted free trade, suffrage for women, and fair treatment for Native Americans.
Frederick Douglass
- 1817(?)-1895.
- An escaped slave and outspoken abolitionist.
- Escaped from his Maryland owner and published his own newspaper, the North Star.
- Favored the use of political methods of reform.
- In the Civil War, he helped put together regiments of African Americans from Massachusetts and urged others to join the Union Army.
- Known as the father of the American civil rights movement.
Population Growth and Change, Early 1800s.
- 1800s.
- Labor shortage meant more opportunity for work.
- Influx of immigration included German skilled labor and Irish Catholics, who faced discrimination.
- Growing population in the West and in rural areas.
- Urbanization outgrew public services, leading to inadequate security and clean water for city dwellers.
- Race riots, religious riots, and street crime became part of city life.
Women in the Early 1800s.
- 1800s.
- Women participated in limited political activity that was mostly religious and reform in nature, such as abolition.
- Employment was limited mostly to schoolteaching.
- They still lives in a "cult of domesticity," in which a woman's role in marriage was to maintain the home for her husband and to raise the children.
- A womans' property became her husband's.
- In future years, the women's rights movement would rise to confront this "cult of domesticity."
Martin Van Buren
- 1837-1841.
- Eighth president.
- Democrat from New York who had served as Jackson's vice president after Calhoun left the position.
- Established the independent treasury, a system maintaining government funds independently of the national banking systems; it existed in one form or another until 1921.
- Panic of 1837 hampered attempts to follow Jackson's policies, and he was unsuccessful in re-election.
William Henry Harrison
- 1841.
- Ninth president.
- A westerner who fought against Native Americans.
- Nicknamed "Old Tippecanoe."
- Vice president was John Tayolor.
- Harrison dies of pneumonia a month after inauguration.
John Tyler
- 1841-1845.
- Tenth president.
- Took office following the death of William Henry Harrison.
- States' righter, Southerner, and strict constructionist.
- Rejected the programs of the Whigs who had elected Harrison, which led them to turn against him.
- Settled Webster-Ashburton Treaty between the United States and Britain.
- Helped Texas achieve statehood in 1845.
U.S.-British Tension and Webster-Ashburton Treaty
- Treaty signed in 1842.
- American ship was burned by Canadian loyalist.
- Canada and the United States disputed the boundary of Maine.
- British ships sometimes stopped American ships to suppress American slave smuggling.
- The treaty settled the boundary of Maine and border disputes in the Great Lakes.
- Created more cooperation between the United States and Britain in curbing the slave trade.
Irish and German Immigration
- 1800s.
- The 1840s saw a dramatic increase in Irish immigration due to the potato famine in Ireland
- The poverty of the Irish immigrants led to settlement in eastern cities and competition for jobs.
- The 1850s had increases in German immigration because of the failed revolution in 1848.
- Many Germans settled in Wisconsin because they had money and other resources, which helped to cultivate the upper-midwest portion of the United States.
- The Five Points neighborhood of New York City included Irish immigrants, African Americans, and Anglo, Italian,and Jewish cultures; it encapsulated the melting-pot phenomenon in the United States.
Manifest Destiny
- Phrase coined in 1844.
- Belief that America was destined to expand to the Pacific, and possible into Canada and Mexico.
- John O'Sullivan, an American journalist, wrote an article pushing for annexation of Texas and coined the phrase "Manifest Destiny."
- Came out of post-1812 War nationalism, the reform impulse of the 1830s, and the need for new resources.
- Those Whigs who supported Manifest Destiny favored more peaceful means, while other Whigs feared American expansion because it might raise the slavery issue in new territories.
- Manifest Destiny was an engine of both discovery and destruction; while it helped American push westward, the ideas behind Manifest Destiny fueled the Mexican War and the displacement of Native Americans.
Transportation in the 1840s and 1850s
- 1840s and 1850s.
- Tremendous expansion of railroad lines created a national marked for goods.
- Railroads, such as the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, were developed to help link the Midwest to the East Coast.
- Steamboats and clipper ships became more popular for travel.
Four Economic Classes in the South
- 1800s.
- Planters: Owned large farms and groups of slaves, and exercised political and economic control with cotton exports.
- Yeomen: The largest group, yeomen worked land independently, sometimes along with slaves, to produce their own foods, like corn.
- Poor Whites: Lived in squalor that was often as bad as that of the slaves.
- Slaves: Worked the land; it was noteworthy that three-fourths of white in the South did not own slaves.
Slave Labor Roles
- 1800s.
- On large farms, white overseers directed African American drivers who supervised groups in the fields as they performed gang labor.
- On smaller farms, a slave was assigned specific tasks and then given the remainder of the day to himself.
- House servants were spared physical labor, but they enjoyed less privacy and had direct responsibility to the master.
Slaves in Southern Urban Areas
- 1800s.
- Slaves served as factory workers or as construction laborers.
- Some purchased their freedom with their savings or disappeared into society.
- As sectional troubles rose, fewer slaves were able to buy freedom or work in urban areas.
Elements of Slavery
- 1700s-1800s.
- Slaves suffered varying degrees of repression, although most received adequate housing and diet.
- Slaves did commit some violent uprisings.
- Many slaves tried to run away into bordering free states.
- Injustice created quiet revolt as slaves sabotaged their facilities, found ways to become unproductive for their masters, and ridiculed their owners.
- Despite their repression, slaves created their own common culture.
Southern Response to Slavery
- 1790-1860s
- Defense of slavery shifted from an early view of slavery as a "necessary evil" (1791) to a "positive good" (after 1840.)
- Used scientific arguments, biblical texts, and historical examples to justify slavery.
- As time passed, this defensive position and abolitionist sentiment increased in fervor.
- Some Southerners, like George Fitzhugh, a Virginia lawyer, defended slavery by condemning Northern "wage slavery"; he used the idea of African American inferiority to suggest that whites were protecting slaves from a world of fierce competition in which, on their own, they would not survive.
The Underground Railroad and Harriet Tubman
- 1840s-1860s (Railroad); 1820(?)-1913 (Harriet Tubman.)
- Method used to move slaves to free territory in the United States and Canada.
- Harriet Tubman was a slave smuggler and "conductor" of the Underground Railroad.
- A freed slave herself, Tubman led over 300 to freedom.
- The Underground Railroad led to tension between states.
James K. Polk
- 1845-1849.
- Eleventh president.
- "Dark Horse" Democratic candidate who became president.
- Big believer in Manifest Destiny and expansionism.
- Nicknamed "Polk the Purposeful" for his focus on a set of specific goals during his presidency.
- Introduced a new independent treasury system.
- Lowered the high rates of tariffs with the Walker Tariff.
- Settled Oregon boundary dispute with the Oregon Treaty (Treaty of Washington-1846) at forty-ninth parallel rather than fifty-four forty.
- Acquired California.
- He led the United States into the Mexican War.
Causes of the Mexican War
- 1844-1846.
- The new Mexican republic would not address grievances of the United States citizens, who claimed property losses and personal injuries resulting from conflicts during the Mexican revolution.
- Mexico and the United States were in a dispute over their border, with the United States saying it was the Rio Grande and Mexico insisting it was the Nueces River.
- Due to sentiment arising from the idea of manifest Destiny, there was an increased American interest in Mexican-held territory.
- The United States had aided Texas in its revolt against the Mexican government and there was a growing momentum toward a United States annexation of Texas.
- When the United States Congress annexed Texas, Polk sent John Slidell to negotiate a settlement for that land, for California, and for western Mexico territory; the Mexican government rejected Slidell.
Mexican War
- 1846-1848.
- John C. Fremont (United States) won attacks on land and at sea in and near California.
- Zachary Taylor defeated large forces in Mexico.
- Mexico refused to negotiate, so President Polk ordered forces led by Winfield Scott into Mexico City.
- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ended the war, giving the United States land originally sought by Slidell (New mexico, Arizona, California, Texas, and parts of Colorado, Utah, and Nevada.)
- Border was set at Rio Grande River.
- Raised questions of slavery in the new territory.
- Henry David Thoreau and a young Whig, Abraham Lincoln, opposed the war.
Wilmot Proviso
- 1846.
- Amendment to a Mexican War appropriations bill.
- Proposed that slavery could not exist in any territory that might be acquired from Mexico.
- The amendment was passed in the U.S. House of Representatives several times, but it was ultimately defeat on each occasion because the South had greater power in the Senate.
- Represented the looming question of slavery's future, which would be decided in the Civil War.
Popular Sovereignty
- 1840.
- Doctrine under which the status of slavery in the territories was to be determined by the settlers themselves.
- Doctrine was first put forward by General Lewis Cass.
- Promoted by Stephen A Douglas.
- Meant as a resolution to the looming crisis of the slavery question.
Free Soil/Free Labor
- 1848-1854.
- An anti-slavery idea that was less opposed to the institution of slavery than it was to the extension of slavery into the United States' Western territories.
- Supporters wanted land to be available for white people to settle and to become financially independent without competition from slavery.
- Free Soil Party created in 1848, drawing from anti-slavery Whigs and former Liberty Party members.
- Opposed extension of slavery into new territories, supported national improvement programs, and promoted small tariffs to help raise revenue.
- Zachary Taylor defeated Free Soil candidate Martin Van Burin for president in 1848.
- Free Soil was mostly taken over by the Republicans in 1854.
Mexican Cession and Slavery
- 1848.
- Argument existed about slavery in the newly acquired Mexican Cession.
- States-righters believed that the territory was the property of all states and that the federal government had no right to prohibit property ownership in territories.
- Many anti-slavery and federal government supporters contended that Congress had the power to make laws for the territories.
- Argument in favor of federal power was based on the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Gold Rush
- 1848-1850s.
- Miners who rushed to California after the discovery of gold were called "Forty Niners."
- Over 80,000 prospectors "rushed" to San Francisco.
- The increased population led to California joining the Union as a free state.
- Connected to the idea of Manifest Destiny.
Zachary Taylor
- 1849-1850.
- Twelfth president.
- Famous general in the Mexican War.
- Whig president.
- Opposed the spread of slavery.
- Encouraged territories to organize and seek admission directly as states to avoid the issue of slavery.
- Died suddenly in 1850 and was replaced by Millard Fillmore.
Industry by 1850
- Pre-1850.
- Mostly located in the North.
- Industry's value surpassed agriculture.
- United States technology exceeded Europe in such areas a rubber, coal power, mass production, and the telegraph.
- Cheap immigrant labor threatened the established workers' jobs.
Agriculture by 1850
- Pre-1850.
- Agricultural technology increased harvest sizes, saved on labor, and made selling farm goods to international markets possible.
- Demand for agricultural land grew.
- Railroad was used to help transport goods.
- John Deere, an American manufacturer, pioneered the steel-plow industry.
- Cyrus McCormack invented the mechanical reaper.
African Americans in the North, 1850.
- 1850.
- Organized churches and groups.
- 200,000 free African Americans lived in the North and West, although their lives were restricted by prejudicial laws.
- Immigration and new resources of labor for employers threatened the economic security of northern African Americans.
The North, 1850
- 1850.
- Wages were increasing and the economy was growing.
- Railroad competition began to harm the canal business.
- Large numbers of Irish and German immigrated to the United States.
- Urbanization increased as the populations grew, bringing problems such as slums, impure water, rats, and foul sewage.
The South, 1850
- 1850.
- Plantation system: Cash crops grown by slave labor.
- Agrarian slave labor was more profitable than using slaves in factories.
- Capital funds were tied up in land and slaves, so little was left for investing in new growth or industry.
- Value system put emphasis on leisure and elegance.
- Unlike the North, the South remained agrarian and its population was less dense.
- Due to the rise of cotton, the influence of the Gulf States in the South grew.
- Cotton became the largest export of the United States.
- Slave importation continued through the 1850s into southwestern states, despite the federal outlaw.
- Few immigrants went to the South.
Stephen Douglas
- 1813-1861.
- Senator from Illinois dubbed the "Little Giant."
- Was an expansionist and a supporter of the Mexican War.
- Broke the Compromise of 1850 into smaller, more acceptable pieces of legislation and pushed it through using various allies in Congress.
- Introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854.
- During a Senate campaign in 1858, participated in debates against Abraham Lincoln (dubbed the Lincoln-Douglas debates.)
- He believed popular sovereignty was the appropriate was to handle the slavery question.
Compromise of 1850 (Omnibus Bill)
- 1850.
- Proposed by Henry Clay and handled by Stephen Douglas.
- Douglas broke the legislation into various peces, which helped to assure its passage; this allowed northern and southern legislators to vote against just the parts they didn't like.
- The Compromise led to sectional harmony for several years.
- California admitted as a free state.
- New Mexico and Utah territories would be decided by popular sovereignty.
- Slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia.
- Tough Fugitive Slave Act passed.
- Federal payments to Texas ($10 million) for lost New Mexico territory.
Fugitive Slave Act
- 1850.
- Part of the Compromise of 1850.
- This new Act reinvigorated enforcement of some guidelines that had already been established in the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which had been mostly ignored by Northern states.
- Created federal commissioners who could pursue fugitive slaves in any state and paid $10 per returned slave.
- African Americans living in the North and claimed by slave catchers were denied portions of legal due process.
- Some Northern sates passed personal-liberty laws that contradicted the Act.
- Led to small riots in the North and increased the rift between the North and South.
Millard Fillmore
- 1850-1853.
- Thirteenth president.
- Became president after Zachary Taylor died.
- As a congressman, he revealed his opposition to both the expansion of slavery and various abolitionist activities, driving away supporters.
- Supported the Compromise of 1850.
- Failed to obtain a nomination in 1852, but was nominated by both the Whigs and Know-Nothing movement of 1856.
Know-Nothings
- 1840s-1850s.
- A political movement that supported Americans and American ideals over what it saw as the influence of immigrants.
- Also grew power from those dissatisfied with the perceived unresponsiveness of local leadership.
- Influenced by German and Irish Catholic immigration during the period; Know-Nothings suspected the immigrants of anti-Americanism and feared the influence of the Pope in Rome.
- The name of the movement came from its roots in secrecy; in its early days, members were supposed to answer that they did not know about the organization if asked by outsiders.
- The movement grew in size and political representation in 1854 and 1855, but it was split by the slavery issue, and most members joined the Republican party by the 1860 presidential election.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
- 1811-1896.
- Worked with the Grimke sisters, Elizabeth Stanton, and other leaders to pursue activist goals.
- Early activist in the feminist movement and author of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1851), a novel critical of slavery.
- Uncle Tom's Cabin was denounced in the South and praised in the North; it turned many toward active opposition to slavery and helped bolster sympathy for abolition by Europeans who had read it.
Franklin Pierce
- 1852-1856.
- Fourteenth president.
- Democratic president from New Hampshire.
- Supported Manifest Destiny despite Northern concerns that it would lead to the spread of slavery.
- Signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
- Sent Commodore Matthew Perry into Japan to open the country to diplomacy and commerce (Treaty of Kanagawa.)
- Opened Canada to greater trade.
- Pierce's diplomats failed in their attempts to purchase Cuba from Spain, leading to the drafting of the Ostend Manifesto.
Henry David Thoreau
- 1817-1862.
- Transcendental writer.
- His Walden (1854) repudiated the repression of society and preached non-violent civil disobedience.
- He protested unjust laws, slavery, and the Mexican War.
- To demonstrate against these issues, Thoreau refused to pay his poll tax and was forced to spend one night in jail.
- Thoreau's ideology was reflected in future advocated like Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Ostend Manifesto
- 1854.
- Drafted by James Buchanan, John mason, and Pierre Soule after Soule failed to purchase Cuba from Spain.
- Suggested that the United States should take Cuba from Spain by force if Spain refused to sell it.
- Abolitionists saw Ostend as a plot to extend slavery.
- Southerners supported the manifesto, as they had feared Cuba would be a free "black republic."
Evolution of the Major Political Parties to pre-Civil War
- 1787-1854.
- Key Moment: Debate over the adoption of a federal constitution.
- parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists, who disagreed about the power and influence of the central government.
- Evolutionary Point: After the Constitution was adopted, the Jeffersonian Republicans absorbed the Anti-Federalists and by 1800 the Federalists had declined.
- Key Moment: Disagreement over John Q. Adams's defeat of Andrew Jackson.
- Parties: Democratic-Republicans and the Whig Party, which was a combination of those who opposed President Jackson't policies and those who had supported John Q. Adams.
- Evolutionary Point: After the death of Whig President William Henry Harrison, parties focused more on issues of sectional unrest.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
- 1854.
- Legislation introduced by Stephen Douglas to organize the area west of Missouri and Iowa.
- one goal was to facilitate the building of a transcontinental railroad that ran west from Chicago.
- Called for two territories to be created (Kansas and Nebraska) and the issue of slaver to be decided by popular sovereignty.
- The act revoked a provision of the Missouri Compromise, allowing everything above 36-30' to be free.
- Kansas's status was impacted by fighting between pro= and anti-slavery groups who moved to the area.
- The conflict was termed "Bleeding Kansas."
Creation of Lincoln's Republican Party
- 1854.
- The Democratic Party divided along North-South lines.
- The Whig Party disintegrated, with its members either joining the Know-Nothings or the newly created Republican Party.
- The Republican Party's unifying principle was that slavery should be banned from all the nation's territories and not permitted to spread any further to established states.
Walt Whitman
- 1819-1892.
- Northern Romantic era poet.
- Wrote a volume of poems, Leaves of Grass (1855.)
- Celebrated the importance of individualism and is considered the poet of American democracy.
James Buchanan
- 1857-1861.
- Fifteenth president.
- Presided over the country when the Dred Scott decision was announced.
- Backed the Lecompton Constitution to appease the South.
- Buchanan, still acting as president after Lincoln's election, denied the legal right of states to secede but believed that the federal government could not legally prevent them.
- Before leaving office, Buchanan appointed Northerners to federal posts and helped to prepare Fort Sumter with reinforcements.
Causes and Impact of the Panic of 1857
- 1857.
- Failure of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co. in New York.
- Over-speculation in railroads and lands.
- Decrease in flow of European capital for United States investments because of Europe's own wars.
- Surplus of wheat hurt Northern farmers.
- Panic spread to Europe, South American, and Far East.
- The Panic fueled sectional tensions as Northerners blamed it on the low tariff policies of the Southern-dominated Congress.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
- 1857.
- Supreme Court case involving a slave, Scott, who was taken by his master from Missouri, a slave state, to Illinois, a free state.
- After Scott had been returned to Missouri, he sued for freedom for himself and his family, stating that by residing in a free state he had ended his slavery.
- President Buchanan meant for the case's decision to serve as the basis for the slavery issue.
- Pro-South Judge Taney ruled that Scott did not have the right of citizenship, which he would need to be able to bring forth a suit.
- Ruled further that the Missouri Compromise itself was unconstitutional because congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories, as slaves were property.
- The Scott decision would apply to all African Americans, who were regarded as inferior and, therefore, without rights.
Lecompton Constitution
- 1857.
- Document submitted by pro-slavery leaders in territorial Kansas the put not restrictions on slavery.
- Free-soilers boycotted the constitutional convention in Lecompton because the document would not leave Kansas a free territory.
- Though President Buchanan supported the constitution as the basis for Kansas' statehood, Congress voted against it.
- The constitution was turned down and Kansas remained a territory.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
- 1858.
- Part of the Illinois senatorial campaign between Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln, these debates centered on the issue of slavery.
- Douglas maintained that popular sovereignty was supported by the basic elements of democracy.
- Douglas offered the "Freeport Doctrine"; despite the Dred Scott case, slavery could be prevented if people living in a territory refused to pass laws favorable to slavery.
- Lincoln had a moral opposition to slavery's spread and demanded constitutional protection where it existed.
- Lincoln lost the Senate election to Douglas, but he stepped into the national limelight.
John Brown
- 1809-1859.
- Brown and his sons killed five pro-slavery settlers in Kansas in an incident known as the "Pottawatamie Creek Massacre."
- He was supported by some Northern abolitionists in order to start a countrywide revolution.
- He led followers to seize a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, hoping to start the rebellion (1859.)
- Brown was arrested and hanged.
- Brown was often referred to as "God's Angry Man."
Transportation from 1860-1900
- 1860-1900.
- Railroads were given land grants by the government.
- Railroad transportation provided opportunities for movement of goods and people to the West and raw materials to the east.
- Affected population movements.
- Made Chicago one of the most populous cities in the nation by 1900.
Election of 1860
- 1860.
- Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln.
- Major planks of his campaign: containment of slavery and encouragement of transcontinental railroad.
- The Democratic vote was split between Douglas and several other strong candidates.
- Lincoln won the election and the South began to secede thereafter.
Abraham Lincoln
- 1861-1865.
- Sixteenth president.
- The Lincoln-Douglas Debates won him high national regard and, eventually, the Republican nomination for president.
- Produced and led a Northern army to defend the Union against the secessionists.
- Suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War, which was upheld by Congress.
- Issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves within the Confederacy.
- Developed the "10% Plan" for Reconstruction.
- Gave the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863, which began "Four score and seven years ago..."- He was assassinated while attending a ply at Ford's Theatre in Washington; the assassin, John Wilkes Booth, believed he was assisting the Southern cause.
Secession
- Began in December of 1860.
- Response to the election of Abraham Lincoln, who sought to contain slavery.
- South Carolina voted to secede on December 20, 1860.
- Over the following two months, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas seceded.
- The remaining states--Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina--seceded after the fall of Fort Sumter.
- These states declared themselves the confederate States of American and elected Jefferson Davis as president, adopting a constitution that permitted slavery rights and the sovereignty of states.
Civil War Conscription
- 1860s.
- congress passed a federal conscription law in 1863.
- rioting in the North took place, notably in New York City, when drafted individuals were permitted to avoid service by hiring a substitute or paying $300.
- The Confederacy's short supply of manpower meant an earlier draft, beginning in 1862.
- Southerners could also hire substitute or purchase an exemption
Civil War Advantages for the South
- 1860s.
- Only needed to resist being conquered.
- Vast in land size.
- Troops would fight in their familiar home territory.
- Highly qualified senior officers including Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, Albert Sidney, Johnston, and Stonewall Jackson.
- Inspired to protect their familiar institutions and culture.
Civil War Advantages for the North
- 1860s.
- Greater population.
- Better railroad lines and more established trade routs than the South.
- More wealth.
- Were able to use the moral issue of fighting slavery as motivation.
Anaconda Plan
- 1861.
- Civil War strategy planned by Northern General Winfield Scott to crush the Southern rebellion.
- Called for a naval blockade to shut out European supplies and exports, a campaign to take the Mississippi River and, thereby, split the South, and a targeting of Southern cities in hopes that pro-Unionists would rise up in the South and overthrow the secession.
- Both the blockade and the taking of the Mississippi were successful.
The Homestead Act
- 1862.
- Granted 160 acres of government land to any person who would farm it for at least five years.
- The government helped to settle the West with this provision.
- This "free soil" proposal became law when the Southern Democrats were not part of Congress.
Battle of Antietam
- September 17, 1862.
- A Civil War battle that offered the North an opportunity to defeat General Lee and shorten the war.
- Northern General George McClellan had discovered detailed plans for lee's entire operation but ignored the opportunity because of over-cautiousness.
- Lee's army was forced to retreat to Virginia after a bloody battle at Antietam.
- McClellan's failure to pursue Lee led Lincoln to remove him from command.
Emancipation Proclamation
- Effective January 1, 1863.
- Declared all slaves to be free in areas under rebel control, thus exempting conquered areas of the South.
- Lincoln was criticized for not abolishing slavery everywhere.
- Led to slaves in the South leaving their plantations.
- Increased morale in the North.
- Partly designed to keep England from joining the war on the side of the South.
- Changed perception of the war from a conflict to preserve the Union to a war to end slavery.
Battle of Gettysburg
- July 1-3, 1863.
- Lee invaded Pennsylvania from Virginia, pursued by Northern general Meade.
- Lee was defeated and retreated to Virginia.
- The bloodiest, most decisive battle of the Civil War.
- Farthest northern advance of the Confederacy.
Civil War Ships
- 1860s.
- Ironclads were Civil War ships protected from cannon fire by iron plates bottled over the sloping wooden sides.
- Confederates outfitted an old wooden warship, the Merrimack, with iron railroad rails, and renamed it the Virginia; it achieved devastating results.
- The Union's Monitor fought the Merrimack to a standstill.
Lincoln's "10% Plan"
- 1863.
- Lincoln believed that seceded states should be restored to the union quickly and easily, with "malice toward none, with charity toward all."
- Lincoln's "10% Plan" allowed Southerners, excluding high-ranking confederate officers and military leaders, to take an oath promising future loyalty to the Union and an end to slavery.
- When 10 percent of those registered to vote in 1860 took the oath, a loyal state government could be formed.
- This plan was not accepted by Congress.
Sherman's March to the Sea
- 1864.
- General William Tecumseh Sherman led union troops through Georgia.
- Sherman and Union Commander, Ulysses S. Grand, believed in a "total war" that would break the South's psychological capacity to fight; Sherman's army sought to eliminate civilian support of Southern troops.
- Sherman captured and burned Atlanta in September 1864.
- The purpose of destroying Atlanta was to lower Southern morale and diminish supplies.
- Sherman led troops to Savannah, then on to South and North Carolina.
Northern Election of 1864
- 1864.
- Lincoln ran against General McClellan, who claimed that the war was a failure and called for a peace settlement.
- Lincoln ran on the ticket of national unity with Andrew Johnson, a loyalist from Tennessee.
- Sherman's taking of Atlanta helped Lincoln win the election.
- Those sympathetic to the Southern cause were labeled "Copperheads."
Wade-Davis Bill
- 1864.
- A proposal to reunite the country by Senators Wade and Davis.
- Required that 50 percent of a state's white male voters take a loyalty oath to be readmitted to the Union.
- Demanded stronger efforts on behalf of states to emancipate slaves.
- Lincoln "pocket-vetoed" the bill in favor of his "10% Plan."
Conclusion of the Civil War
- April 9, 1865.
- With his forces surrounded, General Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.
- Lee's surrender caused the remaining confederate soldiers to lay down their arm.
- By the end of the conflict, the country had sustained over 100,000 casualties.
Reconstruction
- 1865-1877.
- Period following the Civil War in which the United States tried to transform the organization and society of former Confederate states.
- Determined how the South would take over its own governance.
- In 1867, Congress put the South under the army's control oversee elections, ensure the rights of freed slaves, and restrict Confederate leaders from gaining power.
- New Republican state government offered a variety of reconstruction programs, bur former Confederates suspicious of these efforts claimed corruption within state leadership; some turned to violent opposition.
- Reconstruction concluded with the Compromise of 1877 and the end of federal control in the South; former Confederate states began enacting Jim Crow laws and disenfranchising many African Americans.
Freedman's Bureau
-- 1865.
- Congressional support agency providing food, clothing, and education for freed slaves.
- Ex-slave states were divided into districts that were managed by assistant commissioners.
- Despite its benefits, the Bureau failed to establish the freed slaves as landowners.
- It organized the African American vote for the Republican Party, creating great animosity toward the bureau in the South.
Radical Republicans
- 1860s.
- Faction of the Republican party that believed the Civil War was meant to stop slavery and emancipate all slaves.
- Believed Congress should control Reconstruction and not the president.
- Rejected the reentry of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana in to the Union, despite their qualifications under the "10% Plan."
- They wanted the rebellion South to be dealt with a harsher manner.
- Ben Wade and Thad Stevens were among their members.
Civil War Amendments
- 1865-1870.
- Thirteenth Amendment (1865): Abolished slavery in the United States.
- Fourteenth Amendment (1868): African Americans became citizens and no state could deny live, liberty, property without due process of law.
- Fifteenth Amendment (1870): No state could deny the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Black Codes
- Began 1865.
- Restriction by Southern states on former slaves.
- Designed to replicate the conditions of slavery in the post-Civil War South.
- Various codes prohibited meetings without a white present, while others established segregated public facilities.
- Led to Radical Republican opposition and exclusion of Southern representation in Congress.
Jim Crow Laws
- 1800s-1900s.
- Laws separating whites and African Americans in public facilities and restricting their legal guarantees, such as the right to vote.
- Often part of state statutes.
- Support for these laws was provided by the Plessy v. Ferguson case, demonstrating the limits of the Fourteenth Amendment.
- Name of the laws are said to be derived from a character in a minstrel song.
Booker T. Washington
- 1856-1915.
- The son of a slave and a white man.
- Taught at Hampton Institute and, in 1881, helped organize a school for African Americans in Tuskegee, Alabama.
- The Tuskegee Institute emphasized industrial training to help African Americans gather wealth and become influential in society.
- Claimed that it was a mistake for African Americans to push for social equality before they had become economically equal.
- His ideas were denounced by some leaders in the African American community.
- Lectured throughout the United States and Europe and wrote various works, including his autobiography, Up From Slavery.
Andrew Johnson
- 1865-1869.
- Seventeenth president.
- Vice president who took over presidency after Lincoln's assassination.
- He initially followed Lincoln's policies but gradually became more conservative, giving amnesty to former Confederate officials and opposing legislation that dealt with former slaves.
- His veto of the Civil Rights Act was overridden by Congress, which decreased his political power.
- Johnson's opposition to the Radical Republicans and his violation of the Tenure of Office Act led to his impeachment by the House.
- The Senate was organized as a court to hear the impeachment charges, but it came one vote short of the constitutional two-thirds required for removal.
"Seward's Folly"
- 1867.
- Derisive title of Secretary of State William Seward's decision to purchase Alaska for $7.2 million from Russia.
- Congress agreed to the purchase, as Russia had been pro-North during the Civil War.
- Most members thought the purchase to be foolhardy since the land was in such a remote location.
- Russia was willing to sell Alaska because Russia was overextended abroad and feared the loss of Alaska in a future war.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
- Post Civil War-Reconstruction.
- Carpetbaggers: Derogatory Southern name for the Northerners who came to the South to participate in Reconstruction governments.
- Name came from the cloth bags of possessions many of them used to travel South.
- Scalawags: Derogatory name for Southerners working for or supporting the federal government during Reconstruction.
- Some of these Southerners had opposed the war from the beginning, while others helped Reconstruction for financial gain.
- Partially in response to Reconstruction, a group of Southern whites formed the Ku Klux Klan, which targeted carpetbaggers, scalawags, African Americans, and others with aggressive and sometimes violent acts.
Ulysses S. Grant
- 1869-1877.
- Eighteenth president.
- Fought in the Mexican War, captured Vicksburg as a Union general, and accepted General Lee's surrender.
- Appointed Secretary of War by Andrew Johnson in 1867; disagreed with Johnson's policies and won election through support of Radical Republicans.
- Despite his personal honesty and honor, his administration was marred by scandals such as Credit Mobilier and the Whiskey Ring.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
- 1867-1872.
- Stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad created a dummy company, Credit Mobilier.
- The company was supposed to complete the transcontinental railroad, but instead it stole millions of dollars from the government.
- Blame for the scandal fell on Grant and his cabinet.
First Transcontinental Railroad
- 1869.
- Completed with Golden Spike at Promontory Point, Utah.
- Marked the meeting of the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads.
- During construction, the Union Pacific used Irish labor, while the Central Pacific used Chinese labor.
- The connectin of the railroads opened national markets and met growing economic needs.
Knights of Labor
- Established 1869.
- Militant organization seeking solutions to labor problems.
- Allowed skilled and unskilled workers (along with women and African Americans) to join.
- Wanted an eight-hour work day, termination of child labor, equal pay for equal work, and the elimination of private banks.
- Under Terrence Powderly's leadership, the Knights reached membership of over 700,000.
- Downfall caused by emergence of the AFL, mismanagement, and financial losses from unsuccessful strikes.
Panic of 1873
- 1873.
- Economic depression during Grant's second term.
- Over-expansive, unregulated business during the post-Civil War years, the failure of American investment banking firms, and economic downturns in Europe all contributed to the panic.
- Led to the retirement of greenbacks and a return to the gold standard.
Whiskey Ring Fraud.
- 1870s.
- One of the scandals of Grant's administration.
- Liquor taxes were increased to aid in paying off the cost of the Civil War.
- Distillers and treasury officials conspired to defraud the government by giving out cheap tax stamps, robbing the government of million in excise tax.
Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens)
- 1835-1910.
- American novelist who grew up in Hannibal, Missouri.
- Early jobs as both a printer's apprentice and a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River.
- His novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), Huckleberry Finn (1885), and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's court (1889.)
- Twain's writings portray the essence of life and speech during the era; his use of a distinctly American vernacular influenced future fiction writers.
Rutherford B. Hayes
- 1877-1881.
- Nineteenth president.
- Former Ohio governor who was the Republican presidential nominee in 1876.
- Won election through the Compromise of 1877.
- During his term, he removed federal troops from the South.
- Dealt with railroad strike in 1877.
Compromise of 1877
- 1877.
- Compromise came after the disputed presidential election of 1876 between Hayes and Tilden.
- Tilden won the popular vote but neither candidate won the electoral vote, because the electoral votes in three states were in dispute.
- The Democrats agreed to give Hayes the presidency.
- Hayes promised to show consideration for Southern interests, end Reconstruction, aid Southern industrialization, and withdraw remaining forces from the South.
- This settlement left the freed African Americans in the South without support from the Republican Party.
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
- 1877.
- Pay cuts caused labor strikes to spread through the country.
- Workers of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Went on Strike over a second pay cut.
- President Hayes used federal troops to restore order after workers were killed.