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88 terms

Unit 4: Development Review

STUDY
PLAY
Fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Embryo
An organism in the earliest stage of development
Zygote
fertilized egg
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Teratogens
environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problems
Huntington's Disease
an autosomal dominant condition characterized by forgetfulness and irritability
Klinefelter's Syndrome
males with XXY sex chromosomes
Downs Syndrome
mental retardation associated with extra copy of chromosome 21
Chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Genetics
the scientific study of heredity
Maturation
(medicine) the formation of morbific matter in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus
Critical Period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Plasticity
the property of being physically malleable
Assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
Accommodation
the act of providing something (lodging or seat or food) to meet a need
Schemas
conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world
Object Permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Egocentrism
attempting to get personal recognition for yourself (especially by unacceptable means)
Conservation
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
Animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
Reversibility
the quality of being reversible in either direction
Cognitive Maps
mental representations of how a physical space is organized
Personal Fable
the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescent's sense of uniqueness and invincibility
Abstract Thinking
capacity to understand hypothetical concepts
Attachment Theory
the study of the innate tendency to seek out closeness to caretakers in the face of stress
Mary Ainsworth
Strange Situation
4 Strange Situation Experiment concepts
Secure, Avoidant, Resistant/Ambivalent, Disorganized
Secure
not likely to fail or give way
Avoidant
child ignores the mother
Resistant/Ambivalent
child passively or actively shows hostility towards parent
Disorganized
lacking order or methodical arrangement or function
Stranger Anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Imprinting
a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established
Harry Harlow's theory
contact comfort
Kagan's theory
Infant Temperament
Infant Temperament
Easy
slow to warm up
Difficult
Vygotsky 's theory
sociocultural development
sociocultural development
the role of social and language in the child's development
Gender Identity and Gender Typing
gender identity = self-perception as masc. or fem.; gender typing = encompasses identity, stereotyping and gender role
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Gender Schema Theory
children acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be female or male and adjust their behavior accordingly.
Nature v. Nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
Authoritarian Parenting Style
a parenting style where parents are highly demanding and controlling, with little or no affection
Authoritative Parenting Style
A parenting style tending to have reasonably high demands for child compliance coupled with emotional warmth.
Permissive Parenting Style
a parenting style that allows freedom, lax parenting that doesn't set limits or enforce rules constantly
Puberty
the time of life when sex glands become functional
Menarche
the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
Alzheimer's Disease
a disease that results in the progressive loss of an individual's memory and mental capacity.
Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence
knowledge and verbal skills that you accumulate as you age vs. the ability to reason abstractly and solve new problems
Margaret Mead
United States anthropologist noted for her claims about adolescence and sexual behavior in Polynesian cultures (1901-1978)
Stages Theories
View behavior change from a process perspective. Focuses on transitions.
Stages Theorist
Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, Carol Gilligan, Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson,
James Marcia
psychologist who developed the four stages of identity statuses
Kübler-Ross
theorist who proposed that terminally Ill patients go through a series of stages as they approach death.
Jean Piaget's stage theory
Children's cognitive development advances in a series of four stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations.
Jean Piaget's 4 Stages
Sensorimotor Stage, Pre-Operational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, Formal Operational Stage
Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
Pre-Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet think logically
Concrete Operational Stage
the stage lasting from about ages 6 or 7 to 11, children can think logically about concrete events and objects.
Formal Operational Stage
According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Lawrence Kohlberg's stage theory
Stages of morality development presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
3 Stages of Morality
Preconventional Morality, Conventional Morality, Postconventional Morality
Preconventional Morality
before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward
Conventional Morality
by early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake
Postconventional Morality
Affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles
Carol Gilligan's stage theory
moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse
Sigmund Freud's stage theory
Psychosexual Stages Theory
5 Psychosexual Stages
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Erik Erikson's stage theory
Psychosocial Stages
Psychosocial Stages
Periods of life characterized by specific social milestones to be achieved
8 Psychosocial Stages
Intimacy v Isolation, Generativity v Stagnation, Integrity v Despair, Trust v Mistrust, Autonomy v Shame/doubt, Initiative v Guilt, Industry v Inferiority, Identity v Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Erikson's stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families
Generativity vs. Stagnation
maturity is achieved, establish and guide the next generation and come to terms with one's dream and accomplishments
Integrity vs. Despair
Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives
Trust vs. Mistrust
Erikson's first stage during the first year of life, infants learn to trust when they are cared for in a consistent warm manner
Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt
Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing and other activities
Industry v Inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage in which children direct their energy toward mastering knowledge & intellectual skills the danger at this stage involves feeling incompetent & unproductive
Identity v Role Confusion
Erikson's name for the crisis of adolescence.
James Marcia's stage theory
Identity Crisis
Kübler-Ross's stage theory
Stages of Death and Dying
5 Stages of Death and Dying
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
Denial
renunciation of your own interests in favor of the interests of others
Anger
the state of being angry
Bargaining
the negotiation of the terms of a transaction or agreement
Depression
a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity
Acceptance
the act of taking something that is offered