Create an account
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problems
an autosomal dominant condition characterized by forgetfulness and irritability
(medicine) the formation of morbific matter in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescent's sense of uniqueness and invincibility
the study of the innate tendency to seek out closeness to caretakers in the face of stress
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established
Gender Identity and Gender Typing
gender identity = self-perception as masc. or fem.; gender typing = encompasses identity, stereotyping and gender role
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Gender Schema Theory
children acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be female or male and adjust their behavior accordingly.
Nature v. Nurture
name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior
Authoritarian Parenting Style
a parenting style where parents are highly demanding and controlling, with little or no affection
Authoritative Parenting Style
A parenting style tending to have reasonably high demands for child compliance coupled with emotional warmth.
Permissive Parenting Style
a parenting style that allows freedom, lax parenting that doesn't set limits or enforce rules constantly
a disease that results in the progressive loss of an individual's memory and mental capacity.
Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence
knowledge and verbal skills that you accumulate as you age vs. the ability to reason abstractly and solve new problems
United States anthropologist noted for her claims about adolescence and sexual behavior in Polynesian cultures (1901-1978)
theorist who proposed that terminally Ill patients go through a series of stages as they approach death.
Jean Piaget's stage theory
Children's cognitive development advances in a series of four stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations.
Jean Piaget's 4 Stages
Sensorimotor Stage, Pre-Operational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, Formal Operational Stage
Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
in Piaget's theory, the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet think logically
Concrete Operational Stage
the stage lasting from about ages 6 or 7 to 11, children can think logically about concrete events and objects.
Formal Operational Stage
According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Lawrence Kohlberg's stage theory
Stages of morality development presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
Affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles
Carol Gilligan's stage theory
moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse
8 Psychosocial Stages
Intimacy v Isolation, Generativity v Stagnation, Integrity v Despair, Trust v Mistrust, Autonomy v Shame/doubt, Initiative v Guilt, Industry v Inferiority, Identity v Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Erikson's stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families
Generativity vs. Stagnation
maturity is achieved, establish and guide the next generation and come to terms with one's dream and accomplishments
Integrity vs. Despair
Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives
Trust vs. Mistrust
Erikson's first stage during the first year of life, infants learn to trust when they are cared for in a consistent warm manner
Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt
Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing and other activities
Industry v Inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage in which children direct their energy toward mastering knowledge & intellectual skills the danger at this stage involves feeling incompetent & unproductive
a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together