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Spoils System

practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs


coated with a thin layer of gold paint

Civil Service

system that includes most government jobs, except elected positions, the judiciary, and the military


an election in which voters, rather than party leaders, choose their party candidate


a process by which people may vote to remove an elected official


process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature


a way for people to vote directly on a proposed new law

graduated income tax

a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income

Sixteenth Amendment

gave Congress the power to pass an income tax, ratified in 1913

Seventeenth Amendment

required the direct election of senators, ratified in 1913


crusading journalist - uncovered problems


a person working to destroy monopolies and trusts


protection of natural resources

national park

natural area protected and managed by the federal government

Carrie Chapman Catt

suffragist; devised a detailed strategy to win suffrage, state by state


people who worked for women's right to vote


ban on sale and consumption of alcohol


a murder by a mob (group of people)

parochial schools

school sponsored by a church


prejudice against Jews


dishonesty in government - widespread

interstate commerce

trade that crosses state lines

Interstate Commerce Act

forbade practices such as rebates; set up Interstate Commerce Commission

Interstate Commerce Commission

set up to oversee railroads

Pendleton Act

created the Civil Service Commission

Civil Service Commission

to fill government jobs based on merit, awarding jobs to those with the highest scores on civil services exams

Sherman Antitrust Act

prohibited businesses from trying to limit or destroy competition


reformers united by a belief in the public interest, or the good of all the people

Wisconsin Idea

appointing commissions to solve problems & adopting a primary run by state government officials

Theadore Roosevelt

trustbuster; promised a Square Deal to Americans; pushed for conservation

Square Deal

idea that everyone from farmers and consumers to workers and owners should have the same opportunity to succeed

Upton Sinclair

wrote The Jungle, a novel that exposed poor working conditions for laborers & gruesome details of the sausage-making process - helped lead to passing of the Pure Food & Drug Act

Pure Food & Drug Act

required food and drug makers to list all the ingredients on their packges

William H. Taft

quiet, cautious & wary of power; despite his strong Progressive policy record, he lost Progressive support

Woodrow Wilson

brilliant scholar, cautious reformer; New Freedom Program - which resulted in Clayton Antitrust Act & Federal Reserve Act

New Freedom Program

to restore free competition among American corporations

Clayton Antitrust Act

banned some business practices that limited competition & stopped antitrust laws from being used against unions

Federal Reserve Act

set up a system of federal banks and gave the government the power to raise and lower interest rates and control the money supply

Federal Trade Commission

had power to investigate companies and order them to stop using unfair practices to destroy competitors

Bull Moose Party

Roosevelt's Progressive Party; created when he split from Taft

National Woman Suffrage Association

group that pushed for a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote

Susan B. Anthony

suffragist; arrested in 1872 for trying to vote; helped found NWSA

Alice Paul

suffragist; met with President Wilson & gained his support for amendment to give women right to vote

Frances Willard

woman reformer & suffragist; president of WCTU; pushed for ban on alcohol

Woman's Christian Temperance Union

organization formed to campaign against alcohol abuse

temperance movement

reformers who began a campaign against alcohol abuse

Booker T. Washington

founded Tuskegee Institute; believed blacks should learn a trade & move up in society - if they had ability to earn money they would then have $ to demand equality

W.E.B. Du Bois

helped found NAACP ; belived in blacks' need patience and industrial traning but that they should not accept segregation and continue to fight discrimination

NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

group of blacks & whites that worked for equal rights for African Americans


ethnic Mexican American neighborhoods that helped each other


mutual aid groups formed by barrios that pooled money to assist their community (pay insurance; obtain legal advice; help the sick and needy)

Gentlemen's agreement

reached by Roosevelt where Japan would stop any more workers from going to the US & in exchange, the US would allow Japanese women to join their husbands who were already in the country

Roman Catholics & Jews

two religious minority groups who faced discrimination

Anti-Defamation League

formed by American Jews to promote understanding and fight prejudice against Jews


spreading of false, hateful information

Efforts to Control Big Business

Federal Trade Commission; Interstate Commerce Commission; Sherman Antitrust Act

Political Reforms

Wisconsin Idea; more power to voters (recall initiative, refendum; primary); 16th & 17th Amendments

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