57 terms

Chapter 19 - Political Reform and the Progressive Era

Spoils System
practice of rewarding political supporters with government jobs
coated with a thin layer of gold paint
Civil Service
system that includes most government jobs, except elected positions, the judiciary, and the military
an election in which voters, rather than party leaders, choose their party candidate
a process by which people may vote to remove an elected official
process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature
a way for people to vote directly on a proposed new law
graduated income tax
a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income
Sixteenth Amendment
gave Congress the power to pass an income tax, ratified in 1913
Seventeenth Amendment
required the direct election of senators, ratified in 1913
crusading journalist - uncovered problems
a person working to destroy monopolies and trusts
protection of natural resources
national park
natural area protected and managed by the federal government
Carrie Chapman Catt
suffragist; devised a detailed strategy to win suffrage, state by state
people who worked for women's right to vote
ban on sale and consumption of alcohol
a murder by a mob (group of people)
parochial schools
school sponsored by a church
prejudice against Jews
dishonesty in government - widespread
interstate commerce
trade that crosses state lines
Interstate Commerce Act
forbade practices such as rebates; set up Interstate Commerce Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission
set up to oversee railroads
Pendleton Act
created the Civil Service Commission
Civil Service Commission
to fill government jobs based on merit, awarding jobs to those with the highest scores on civil services exams
Sherman Antitrust Act
prohibited businesses from trying to limit or destroy competition
reformers united by a belief in the public interest, or the good of all the people
Wisconsin Idea
appointing commissions to solve problems & adopting a primary run by state government officials
Theadore Roosevelt
trustbuster; promised a Square Deal to Americans; pushed for conservation
Square Deal
idea that everyone from farmers and consumers to workers and owners should have the same opportunity to succeed
Upton Sinclair
wrote The Jungle, a novel that exposed poor working conditions for laborers & gruesome details of the sausage-making process - helped lead to passing of the Pure Food & Drug Act
Pure Food & Drug Act
required food and drug makers to list all the ingredients on their packges
William H. Taft
quiet, cautious & wary of power; despite his strong Progressive policy record, he lost Progressive support
Woodrow Wilson
brilliant scholar, cautious reformer; New Freedom Program - which resulted in Clayton Antitrust Act & Federal Reserve Act
New Freedom Program
to restore free competition among American corporations
Clayton Antitrust Act
banned some business practices that limited competition & stopped antitrust laws from being used against unions
Federal Reserve Act
set up a system of federal banks and gave the government the power to raise and lower interest rates and control the money supply
Federal Trade Commission
had power to investigate companies and order them to stop using unfair practices to destroy competitors
Bull Moose Party
Roosevelt's Progressive Party; created when he split from Taft
National Woman Suffrage Association
group that pushed for a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote
Susan B. Anthony
suffragist; arrested in 1872 for trying to vote; helped found NWSA
Alice Paul
suffragist; met with President Wilson & gained his support for amendment to give women right to vote
Frances Willard
woman reformer & suffragist; president of WCTU; pushed for ban on alcohol
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
organization formed to campaign against alcohol abuse
temperance movement
reformers who began a campaign against alcohol abuse
Booker T. Washington
founded Tuskegee Institute; believed blacks should learn a trade & move up in society - if they had ability to earn money they would then have $ to demand equality
W.E.B. Du Bois
helped found NAACP ; belived in blacks' need patience and industrial traning but that they should not accept segregation and continue to fight discrimination
NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
group of blacks & whites that worked for equal rights for African Americans
ethnic Mexican American neighborhoods that helped each other
mutual aid groups formed by barrios that pooled money to assist their community (pay insurance; obtain legal advice; help the sick and needy)
Gentlemen's agreement
reached by Roosevelt where Japan would stop any more workers from going to the US & in exchange, the US would allow Japanese women to join their husbands who were already in the country
Roman Catholics & Jews
two religious minority groups who faced discrimination
Anti-Defamation League
formed by American Jews to promote understanding and fight prejudice against Jews
spreading of false, hateful information
Efforts to Control Big Business
Federal Trade Commission; Interstate Commerce Commission; Sherman Antitrust Act
Political Reforms
Wisconsin Idea; more power to voters (recall initiative, refendum; primary); 16th & 17th Amendments