Some restored monarchies in Europe (after Napoleon died) considered helping Spain to return to power in South America, where a number of republics had recently declared their independence. Also, Russian seal hunters (from Alaska) had spread southward and established a trading post at San Francisco Bay. British Foreign Secretary George Canning, wanting to maintain British trade with the Latin American republics, suggested to U.S. the idea of issuing a joint Anglo-American warning to the European powers. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, however, believed that joint action with Britain would restrict U.S. opportunities for further expansion in the hemisphere.The president decided to act as Adams advised—in short, to issue a statement to the world that did not have Britain as a coauthor. The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.