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Chapter 8 AMSCO Vocab

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Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
sectionalism
Sectionalist tensions over slavery were becoming ever more apparent
James Monroe
He had fought in the Revolutionary War. He later had become prominent in Virginia's Republican party and had served in high-level diplomatic roles as Jefferson's minister to Great Britain and as Madison's secretary of state. His choice as Madison's successor continued what appeared to be a Virginia dynasty of presidents. (the exception, John Adams, was from MA.) With no organized political opposition to stand in his way, President Monroe supported the growing nationalism of the American people. His eight-year presidency is noted for the acquisition of Florida, the Missouri Compromise, and of course the Monroe Doctrine.
nationalism: cultural, economic
The young were excited about the prospects of the new nation expanding westward and had little interest in European politics. As fervent nationalists, they believed their young country was entering an era of unlimited prosperity. Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society, from paintings to schoolbooks.Running parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nation's economy. Subsidizing internal improvements (the building of roads and canals) was one aspect of the movement. Protecting budding U.S. industries from European competition was a second aspect
Tariff of 1816
Before the War of 1812, Congress had levied low tariffs
on imports as a method for raising government revenue. After the war, Congress raised the tariff rates on certain goods for the express purpose of protecting U.S. manufacturers from ruin. A number of factories had been erected during the war to supply goods that previously had been imported from Britain. Now in peacetime, American manufacturers feared that British goods would be dumped on American markets. Congress' tariff of 1816 was the first protective tariff in U.S. history—the first of many to come
protective tariff
a tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods, used to stimulate domestic market
Henry Clay; American System
Henry Clay of Kentucky, a leader in the House of Representatives, proposed a comprehensive method for advancing the nation's economic growth. His plan, which he called the American System, consisted of three parts: (1) protective tariffs, (2) a national bank, and (3) internal
improvements
Second Bank of the US
Two parts of Clay's system were already in place in 1816, the last year of James Madison's presidency. Congress in that year adopted a protective tariff and also chartered the Second Bank of the United States. (The charter of the First Bank—Hamilton's brainchild—had been allowed to expire in 1811.)
Panic of 1819
This economic disaster was largely the fault of the Second Bank of the United States, which had tightened credit in a belated effort to control inflation. Many state banks closed, the value of money became deflated, and there were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt. Although every section was hurt, the depression was most severe in the West where land speculation based on postwar euphoria had placed many people in debt, and in 1819, the Bank of the United States foreclosed on large amounts of western farmland
John Marshall
John Marshall was still leading the Court as its chief justice. His decisions in many landmark cases consistently favored the central government and the rights of property against
the advocates of states' rights. Even when Republican justices formed a majority on the Court, they sided with Marshall because they too were persuaded that the U.S. Constitution had created a Union of states, whose government had strong and flexible powers
Fletcher v. Peck
In a case involving land fraud in Georgia, Marshall concluded that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract. This was the first time that the Supreme Court declared a state law to be unconstitutional and invalid
McCulloch v. Maryland (1810)
The state of Maryland tried to collect a tax from the Second Bank of the United States. Using a loose interpretation of the
Constitution, Marshall ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create the bank. Furthermore, a state could not tax a federal institution because "the power to tax is the power to destroy," and federal laws are supreme over
state laws
Martin v. Hunter's Lease (1816)
In this case, the Supreme Court established the principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
This case involved a law of New Hampshire that changed Dartmouth College from a privately chartered college into a public institution. The Marshall Court struck down the state law as unconstitutional, arguing that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the state.
Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
In Virginia, the Cohens were convicted of selling Washington, D.C., lottery tickets authorized by Congress. Marshall and the Court upheld the conviction. More important, this case established the principle that the Supreme Court could review a state court's decision involving any of the powers of the federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1821)
Could the state of New York grant a monopoly to a steamboat company if that action conflicted with a charter authorized by Congress? In ruling that the New York monopoly was unconstitutional, Marshall established the federal government's broad control of interstate commerce
implied powers
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions
Tallmadge Amendment
Ever since Vermont entered the Union as a free state and Kentucky entered as a slave state, politicians had attempted
to preserve a sectional balance between North and South.
Missouri's bid for statehood alarmed the North because slavery was well established there. Representative James Tallmadge from New York ignited the debate about the Missouri question by proposing an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission. The amendment called for (1) prohibiting the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and (2) requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at the age of 25. The amendment was defeated in the Senate as enraged southerners saw it as the first step in a northern effort to abolish slavery in all states
Missouri Compromise (1820)
After months of heated debate in Congress and throughout the nation, Henry Clay won majority support for three bills that, taken together, represented a compromise:
1. Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state.
2. Maine was to be admitted as a free state.
3. In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36° 30, slavery was prohibited.
Both houses passed the compromise plan, and President Monroe added his signature in March 1820
Stephen Decatur
During Madison's presidency, when problems with the Barbary pirates again developed, a fleet under Stephen Decatur was sent in 1815 to force the rulers of North Africa to allow American shipping the free use of the Mediterranean
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
strictly limited naval armament on the Great Lakes. In time the agreement was extended to place limits on border fortifications as well. Ultimately, the border between the United States and Canada was to become the longest unfortified boundary in the world.
Treaty of 1818
Improved relations between the United States and Britain
continued in a treaty that provided for (1) shared fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland; (2) joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for ten years; and (3) the setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel, thus establishing the western U.S.-Canada boundary line
Andrew Jackson
During the War of 1812, U.S. troops had occupied western Florida (held by Spain, Britain's ally). After the war, Spain had difficulty governing the rest of Florida because its troops had been removed from Florida to battle revolts in the South American colonies. The chaotic conditions permitted groups of Seminoles to conduct raids into U.S. territory and retreat to safety across the Florida border. The president commissioned General Jackson to stop the raiders. Jackson went beyond his instructions. In 1818, he led a force of militia into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged their chiefs. He drove out the Spanish governor, and even hanged two British traders accused of aiding the Seminoles
Florida Purchase Treaty 1819
Spain worried that the United States would seize Florida by force. Preoccupied with troubles in Latin America, the
Spanish government decided to get the best possible terms for Florida. By treaty in 1819, Spain turned over the rest of western Florida along with all of the east and its own claims in the Oregon Territory to the United States. In exchange, the United States agreed to assume $5 million in claims against Spain and give up any U.S. territorial claims to the Spanish province of Texas
Monroe Doctrine 1823
Some restored monarchies in Europe (after Napoleon died) considered helping Spain to return to power in South America, where a number of republics had recently declared their independence. Also, Russian seal hunters (from Alaska) had spread southward and established a trading post at San Francisco Bay. British Foreign Secretary George Canning, wanting to maintain British trade with the Latin American republics, suggested to U.S. the idea of issuing a joint Anglo-American warning to the European powers. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, however, believed that joint action with Britain would restrict U.S. opportunities for further expansion in the hemisphere.The president decided to act as Adams advised—in short, to issue a statement to the world that did not have Britain as a coauthor. The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.
Lancaster Turnpike
built in the 1790s, connected Philadelphia with the rich farmlands around Lancaster. Its success stimulated the construction of other privately built and relatively short toll roads that, by the mid-1820s, connected most of the country's major cities.
National (Cumberland) Road
Despite the need for interstate roads, states' righters blocked the spending of federal funds on internal improvements. Construction of highways that crossed state lines was therefore unusual. One notable exception was the National, or Cumberland Road, a paved highway and major route to the west extending more than a thousand miles from Maryland to Illinois. It was begun in 1811 and completed in the 1850s, using both federal and state money, with the different states receiving ownership of segments of the highway
Erie Canal
The completion of the Erie Canal in New York State in 1825
was an event of major importance in linking the economies of western farms and eastern cities. The success of this canal in stimulating economic growth touched off a frenzy of canal-building in other states. In little more than a decade, canals joined together all of the major lakes and rivers east of the
Mississippi. Improved transportation meant lower food prices in the East, more immigrants settling in the West, and stronger economic ties between the two sections
Robert Fulton; steamboats
The age of mechanized, steam-powered travel began in 1807
with the successful voyage up the Hudson River of the Clermont, a steamboat developed by Robert Fulton. Commercially operated steamboat lines soon made
round-trip shipping on the nation's great rivers both faster and cheaper
railroads
The early railroads were hampered at first by safety problems, but by the 1830s they were competing directly with canals as an alternative method for carrying
passengers and freight. Combined with the other major improvements in transportation (especially steamboats and canals), the railroad swiftly changed small western towns such as Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit, and Chicago into booming commercial centers of the expanding national economy
Eli Whitney; interchangeable parts
Besides inventing the cotton gin in 1793, Whitney devised a system for making rifles out of interchangeable parts during the War of 1812. Interchangeable parts then became the basis for mass production methods in the new northern factories
corporations
In 1811, New York passed a law that made it easier for a business to incorporate and raise capital (money) by selling
shares of stock. Other states soon imitated New York's example. Owners of a corporation risked only the amount of money that they invested in a venture. Changes in state corporation laws facilitated the raising of the large sums of
capital necessary for building factories, canals, and railroads
Samuel Slater
When Samuel Slater emigrated from Britain, he took with him the British secrets for building cotton-spinning machines, and he put this knowledge to work by helping establish the first U.S. factory in 1791
factory system
a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building, would become the standard of American industry
Lowell System; textile mills
At first, finding workers for the mills and factories was a major problem, because factories had to compete with the lure of cheap land in the West. Textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, recruited young farm women and housed them in company dormitories. In the 1830s, the Lowell System was widely imitated. Many factories also made extensive use of child labor. (Children as young as seven left home to work in the new factories.) Only toward the middle of the century did northern manufacturers begin to employ
immigrants in large numbers
industrialization
the development of industries for the machine production of goods, America was undergoing this process throughout the 19th centruy
specialization
the development of skills in a specific kind of work, American workers began to specialize and unique trades emerged
unions
Trade (or craft) unions were organized in major cities as early as the 1790s and increased in number as the factory system took hold. Many skilled workers (shoemakers and weavers, for example) had to seek employment in factories because their earlier practice of working (the craft system) could no longer compete with lower-priced, mass-produced
goods. Long hours, low pay, and poor working conditions led to widespread discontent among factory workers. A prime goal of the early unions was to reduce the workday to ten hours. The obstacles to union success, however, were many: (1) immigrant replacement workers, (2) state laws outlawing unions, and (3) frequent economic depressions with high unemployment
cotton gin
Throughout the 19th century, the principal cash crop in the South was cotton. Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793 transformed the agriculture of an entire region. Now that they could easily separate the cotton fiber from the seeds, southern planters found cotton more profitable than tobacco and indigo, the leading crops of the colonial period. They invested their capital in the purchase of slaves and new land in Alabama and Mississippi and shipped most of their cotton crop overseas for sale to British textile factories
market revolution
Specialization on the farm, the growth of cities, industrialization, and the development of modern capitalism meant the end of self-sufficient households and a growing interdependence among people. All combined to bring about a revolution in the marketplace. The farmers fed the workers in the cities, who in turn provided farm families with an array of mass-produced goods