Upgrade to remove ads
ANSC Female Reproductive Anatomy (Exam 1)
Terms in this set (79)
What are the layers of the reproductive tract?
Mucosa, submucosa, muscular, and serosa.
What is the mucosa?
An epithelial lining or coating of a structure (secretory layer)
What is the submucosa?
A general region of tissue laying just beneath the mucosal layer housing the vasculature, nerve supply, and lymphatics (secretory glands, blood vessels)
What is the muscularis?
The smooth muscle layer covering a tubular or hollow organ; comprised of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers (important for movement - semen movement)
What is the serosa?
A serous membrane making up the outermost covering of an organ or serving as the lining of a cavity; usually a single layer of squamous cells.
What is the function of the broad ligament?
Functions to support and suspend reproductive tract, houses the vascular, lymphatic (drainage) and nerve supply
What is the broad ligament composed of?
Mesometrium (body, holds uterus), mesosalpinx (oviduct, holds oviduct), mesovarium (ovary, holds ovary)
What is the ovary and what is its function?
Equivalent to testes, female gonad that function to produce female gametes (ova), and produce estrogen and progesterone
What is the ovary suspended by?
What are the shapes of the ovaries in the sheep, cattle, and horse?
Round in sheep, almond in cattle, and bean (kidney) shaped in horse
What is the ovary comprised of?
The cortex, medulla, hilus, tunica albuginea, and ovulation fossa
What is the cortex of the ovary?
Outer portion that contains developing and atretic follicles, as well as functional and regressing corpora lutea.
What is the medulla of the ovary?
Inner portion that houses blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
What is the hilus of the ovary?
Region housing blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves that enter and leave an organ
What is the tunica albuginea of the ovary?
The outer connective tissue surface
What is the ovulation fossa of the ovary?
A conspicuous depression in the ovarian surface that is the site of each ovulation in the mare.
What is different about the mare (horse) ovary from the cattle, sheep, and pig?
In the mare, the cortex is located on the inside of the ovary and the medulla surrounds it on the outside. In cattle, sheep, and pigs, cortex is on the outside and medulla is inside.
What are the follicles?
Primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary (antral), and Graafian, spherical structures within the ovary that contain an oocyte
What is the primordial follicle?
The most primitive stage of the ovarian follicle, surrounded by a single layer of squamous granulosa cells.
Primordial follicles are present at ________ and _______ in number as a female matures.
Primordial follicles are present at birth and decrease in number as a female matures.
What is the primary follicle?
Characterized by having a single layer of cuboidal shaped cells surrounding the oocyte. The nucleus of the oocyte is arrested in the dictate stage.
What follicles remain this this stage until puberty?
Most __________ follicles never ovulate and undergo atresia.
Most primary follicle never ovulate and undergo atresia.
What is the secondary follicle?
Characterized by two or more layers of cells surrounding the oocyte.
In the secondary follicle, the __________ is formed around the oocyte.
In the secondary follicle, the zona pellucid is formed around the oocyte. Increase in granulose cell layers.
What is the tertiary (antral) follicle?
Characterized by an antrum filled with follicular fluid, layers of both granulosal and thecal cells
What is the Graafian follicle?
Large, dominant, pre-ovulatory follicle that is characteristically similar to a tertiary follicle but contains more cell layers and a much larger antrum
The Graafian follicle is capable of ________ following a surge of ______________.
The Graafian follicle is capable of ovulation following a surge of leutinizing hormone (LH). It is dependent on the LH surge.
What is the atretic follicle?
A follicle that is undergoing degeneration and resorption before ovulation; can occur at any follicular stage.
What is the corpus hemorrhagicum (CH)?
Small, blood clot that results from rupture of blood vessels during ovulation, newly ruptured follicle
What is the corpus luteum (CL)
An organ to yellow colored transient endocrine structure formed after ovulation from granulosal and thecal cells of the ovarian follicle. (temporary endocrine gland)
What is the corpus luteum responsible for producing?
The production of progesterone and oxytocin
What is the corpus albican (CA)?
A white, scar-like, fibrous structure that represents advanced regression of the corpus luteum (remains after CL regresses, left over scar tissue)
If the medulla is on the inside, and the cortex is on the outside, which species is this?
Anything but the mare (horse)!
Why do sows (mother pigs) have several corpus luteum?
What is folliculargenesis?
Process whereby ovarian follicles develop from their initial stage as a primordial follicle through their final stage as a Graafian follicle
How many oocytes are in each follicle?
Each follicle houses one oocyte
What is luteogenenis?
Formation of the corpus luteum
What is luteolysis?
Regression of a corpus luteum (induced by the hormone prostaglandin F2alpha), which leads to a corpus albican
What are the three important ovarian abnormalities?
Cystic follicles, luteal cysts, and persistent corpus luteum
What are cystic follicles?
The failure of a Graafian follicle to ovulate. It persists on the ovary and continues to grow. The follicle still produces high amounts of estradiol, and can cause the animal to show a continued estrus behavior
What are luteal cysts?
Occur when the theca internal cells do not fill the cavity that is created upon ovulation (the rupturing of a follicle). They can cause abnormal estrous cycles and early embryonic mortality.
What is persistent corpus luteum?
The failure of the CL to regress. It causes a suppression of the estrous cycle due to its resemblance to pregnancy. (i.e., progesterone is still produced and the body falsely identifies this state as a pregnancy)
Which cell has no antrum, multiple cells, has a nucleus and oocyte?
Primary cell has ______ cell layer
Primordial - lots with ______ cell layers.
The oviduct connects what?
The ovary to the uterine horn (uterus)
What is the oviduct?
Small, usually convoluted duct
What does the oviduct do?
Transports oocytes and sperm, storage and capacitation of sperm, site of fertilization (ampullary-isthmic junction AIJ), and is the site of early embryonic development
What is the oviduct suspended by?
What is the oviduct comprised of?
Infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus
What is the infundibulum?
Funnel - shaped opening or catcher's mitt , the surface is coated with numerous velvety finger-like projections called fimbrae.
What is fimbriae?
Velvety finger-like projections in the infundibulum
What does the fimbriae do?
Near the time of ovulation, the fimbriae increase in surface area and cause the infundibulum to glide over the entire surface of the ovary which maximizes the chance that it will "catch" the oocyte
What is the ampulla?
Comprises half or more of the oviduct; characterized by a large diameter and many mucosal folds (cilia - finger like)
What is the isthmus?
The portion of the oviduct directly connected to the uterus; characterized by a smaller diameter. Larger lumen, less folds, more muscle to get sperm up.
What functions to provide the optimum environment for oocytes, sperm, and embryos, depending on the segment or location and time point of the estrous cycle?
What is the ampullary isthmic junction (AIJ)?
Site of fertilization, located between the ampulla and isthmus
What is the order after the ovary of the infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus?
ovary -> Infundibulum, ampullary, (AIJ junction), then isthmus, (uterotubal junction UTJ), uterine horn
What is the uterus?
Organ between oviduct and cervix, consists of a body of two horns, a hollow, tubular organ surrounded by smooth muscle and lined with epithelium
What are the functions of the uterus?
Transport sperm, induce luteolysis through the production of prostaglandin F2alpha (control of cyclicity or the estrous cycle), embryonic and subsequent fetal environment, formation of the maternal portion of the placenta, and expulsion of the fetus and fetal portion of the placenta
What is the uterus suspended by?
What organ consists of a body and two uterine horns?
Livestock species have _________ uteri; characterized by two developed uterine horns and a small uterine body.
Livestock species have bicornuate uteri; characterized by two developed uterine horns and a small uterine body.
The ______ of uterine horns varies between species.
The length of uterine horns varies between species.
As litter bearing species, sows have _____ uterine horns.
As liter bearing species, sows have long uterine horns.
Mares have ______ uterine horns, which makes it difficult for them to carry twins to term.
Mares have short uterine horns, which makes it difficult for them to carry twins to term.
Within the uterus, what are the reproductive tract layers?
Endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium
What is the endometrium?
Comprised of the mucosa and submucosa
What is the myometrium?
Analogous to the musclularis
What is the perimetrium?
Analogous to the serosa
In the uterine horn, what is the "white" tube in the middle?
Lumen lined by mucosal lining
What is the cervix?
Between the uterine and vagina. Structure consisting of dense connective tissue with varying degrees of folding and protrusion of the mucosal epithelium.
What are the cervix functions?
Provide lubrication, serve as a flushing system, serve as a barrier during pregnancy (mucus plug forms when most species are pregnant (water break) barrier
What is the cervix shape of the cow and ewe?
What is the cervix shape of the sow?
Corkscrew shape, annular rings overlap
What is the cervix shape of the mare?
Longitudinal folds, easy to AI, bacteria and uterine infections susceptible
What is the vagina?
Connects the cervix to the external genitalia and serves as the female copulatory organ
What is the vulva?
External tissue of the female reproductive tract that receives the penis during copulation
This set is often in folders with...
ANSC Male Reproductive System (Exam 1)
ANSC Estrous Cycle (Exam 2)
ANSC Endocrine glands and Hormones (Exam 2)
ANSC Onset of Puberty (Exam 2)
You might also like...
PPT 5 Repro
ASCI 341 - Ch. 2 Female Repro
Repro Test 2: Female Reproductive Anatomy
Ch 2 - Female Reproductive Tract
Other sets by this creator
Quiz - FFA Manual
Safety - Boaters
White-winged Dove Bio Facts
Scaled Quail Biological Facts