21 terms

DP Biology Vocabulary - D.2 Digestion

Nervous system
the source of electrical signals which control the secretion of digestive juices
Endocrine system
the source of chemical signals which control the secretion of digestive juices
Vagus nerve
electrical signals travel through this from the medulla to the stomach wall
hormone which stimulates secretion of acid and pepsinogen
hormone which inhibits gastrin secretion
Exocrine glands
glands which secrete digestive juices
Extensive endoplasmic reticulum
in exocrine gland cells to synthesise large quantities of enzymes
the site of a significant amount of the absorption in the small intestine
the many folds on the inner surface of the ileum
the process of taking substances into cells and the blood
extensions found on the cell surface membrane of villi
Parietal cells
the cells of the stomach which secrete acid
Chief cells
the cells of the stomach which secrete pepsinogen
the inactive form of pepsin - this prevents the cells that produce it from being digested at the same time as protein in the diet
a protease which is found in the stomach - it is secreted in an inactive form
Helicobacter pylori
a bacterium which is a significant cause of stomach ulcers, and seems to be associated with stomach cancer
Proton pump inhibitors
drugs which bind irreversibly to proton pumps, thereby reducing the acidic environment of the stomach
the fate of food material which cannot be digested and absorbed
edible parts of plants that are resistant to being digested and are not absorbed
a condition in which the movement of fecal matter is painful or difficult to pass out of the digestive system
a disease caused by a bacterium where severe dehydration can result in death