100 terms

Eastern European History

HIST 226 MCgill

Terms in this set (...)

Alexander I
King of Yugoslavia 1929-1934.
S of Alexander I
Suspended constitution, eliminated skusptina, united kingdom by abolishing ethnic and religious parties
Arrow Cross
Fascist Party of Hungary
S of the Arrow Cross
Founded by Ferenc Szalasi in 1934, combination of Christianity and Marxism to form Hungarism, rejected Nazis because their idea of themselves as a chosen race was too Jewish. Coup 1944, take over from Horthy.
First Balkan Wars
1912-1913, Balkan League vs Ottoman Empire
S of the First Balkan Wars
Ottomans were shown to be weak by a defeat in Libya, Albanians become independent, Macedonia denied to Bulgarians given to Greeks and Serbians
Second Balkan Wars
1913, Bulgaria fights for Macedonia
S of the Second Balkan Wars
Bulgaria loses lots, Ottomans are delegated to Turkey.
Greece and Serbia
Who was given Macedonia after the First Balkan Wars?
Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia
Who was the Balkan League?
Operation Barbarossa
Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union
June 22 1941
When was operation barbarossa?
S of Operation Barbarossa
Linked with Anti-Semitic extermination campaign. Failed and pushed Germans back from the Soviet-Germany front. Turning point for Third Reich.
Eduard Benes
Czechoslovakian Foreign Minister 1918-1935, President 1935-1938 and 45-48.
S of Eduard Benes
Leader of Czechoslovak Independence movement, first and longest serving foreign minister, strong czechoslovakist, spoke out strongly against Slovakian secession, dominant figure in Czech National Socialist Party, bullied into resigning in 38 under German pressure then resigned in 48 under Communist pressure.
Istvan Bethlen
Prime minister of Hungary 1921-1931
S of Istvan Bethlen
Started Government Party, facade of democracy but rigged elections to support sole Government Part, 'regime of consolidation,' wanted to put power in the hands of the Hungarian gentry, old right.
Boris III
King of Bulgaria 1918-1943
S of Boris III
Son of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Pushes out PM in 1926 showing royal authority, instituted absolute monarchy in 1935 with the support of IMRO, strongly non-interventionist foreign policy, tried to maintain sovreignity and some freedom of action throughout WWII, died 43.
Bosnian Crisis
1908, AH annexation of Bosnia
S of Bosnian Crisis
Bulgaria declres independence while Ottomans are busy putting down Young Turks. AH annexes Bosnia, and Serbia and Russia protest, Germany takes sides with AH.
Ion Bratianu
PM of Romania 1921-1927
S of Ion Bratianu
Liberal leader, appointed by King Ferdinand to replace Averescu, program of nationalist investment and neglect of agriculture, his policies did not make the liberals popular with peasants who would support the NPP.
Carol II
King of Romania 1930-1940.
S of Carol II
Returned to Romania in 1930 declaring himself King, created a guided democracy to keep the fascist right organization Iron Guard at bay; it was a form of royal dictatorship called the Front of National Rebirth. Good example of preemptive semi-fascist dictatorship to preclude threats from the right. Abdicated to Iron Guard in 40.
Pact of Corfu
1917, declared united Yugoslavia
S of Pact of Corfu
Declared united and independent state of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes constitutional monarchy. Recognized diff alphabets, flags and religions. Silent on distribution of power and future relations.
Corneliu Codreanu
Formed the Legion of the Archangel Michael aka the Iron Guard in 1927: fascist organization.
S of Codreanu
Created largest fascist organization outside of Germany, very close to Orthodox Church, highly anti-semitic, heavily violent. Merged with NPP for a time, forced Carol into pre-emptive semi-fascism. Killed 1938.
Serbian nationalist and paramilitary association lead by Mihailovic
S of Cetniks
Rivals of the communist partisans, aliied with Germany forcing ceasefires in areas they occupied, shielding native Yugoslavian populations. Violently eliminated when Partisans come to power.
Roman Dmowski
Head of Polish National Democratic Party
S of Roman Dmowski
Centralist and polonocentric views on formation of Polish state pre-1918. Founder of National Democracy, endecja, right wing nationalist group in favor of homogenous and modernized state.
Nazi paramilitary killing squads.
S of einsatzgruppen
Mechanism for second stage of Nazi policy towards Jews in Europe, gratuitous killing, the psychological strain on them and their identity of murderers pushed creation of gas chambers to make murder more anonymous.
General Government
Government put in place in Poland by the Nazis, separate part of Greater Germany.
S of greater government
Since west wouldn't negotiate with Germany, and no Pole would step forward as a collaborator, Nazis trashed idea of Poland as autonomous satellite state and incorporated it into the Reich. Led by Hans Frank. Nazis wanted it to be filled with Germans, Jews eliminated, Poles servile.
Gyula Gombos
Fascist Prime Minister of Hungary 1932-1936
S of Gyula Gombos
Leader of Magyar group and the new right, saw himself as protector of Hungarians against Germans and jews, admirer of Mussolini, wanted corporate state.
Konrad Henlein
Leader of the Sudeten German Home Front.
S of Konrad Henlein.
Saw life in Reich as superior to that in Czechoslovakia, demanded greater privileges to German minorities, wanted recognition of German settlement area, and eventually incorporation into the Reich, had a paramilitary arm.
Andrej Hlinka
Leader of Slovak People's Party 1913-1938.
S of Hlinka
Wanted Slovak autonomy and a federalized state. Catholic priest, Catholicism v prevalent in Slovak identity, upset over Czech domination of Slovak civil service.
Miklos Horthy
Regent of Hungary 1920-1944.
S of Miklos Horthy
Overthrew Kun's communist government with support of allied powers in 1919. Was made regent and not king so nobles could retain symbol of historic Hungary going into Paris Peace. Stabilized economics with Bethlen, replaced with fascist leaning Gombos during depression, ambivalently committed to Germany in return for territorial gains post-Trianon.
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization,
Wanted autonomous Macedonia, paramilitary group, later would represent Bulgarian interests in Balkan politics. June 1923 coup pushing out agrarian. Help Boris put in absolute monarchy in 1935.
Iron Guard
Paramilitary branch of Codreanu's fascist Romanian legion, would come to refer to the whole organization.
S of Iron Guard
Strongest and largest fascist organization in EE outside of Nazi Germany, Peasants and intellectual proletariat support, lots of pageantry, take over from Carol in 1940 declaring themselves the only legal party,removed by Antonescu and Reich in January 1941.
Mihaly Karolyi
Prime Minister of Hungary 1918-March 1919.
S of Karolyi
Supporter of the west, leader of the Independence Part, part of an ill-fated attempt at Westernized democracy, leader of the 'moderate revolution', deposed by Kun and Communists in 1919 who rode on national outrage created by extreme post-war social problems.
Bela Kun
Leader of short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.
S of Kun
Communist leader, allies hated his rise of power, power came from nationalist sentiments though it was very anti-nationalism and social unrest caused by post-war problems, highly anti-semitic, agrarian policy nationalised large estates (wanted to avoid creating rural bourgeoise).
Tomas Garrigue Masaryk
President of Czechoslovakia 1918-1935.
S of Masaryk
Influenced Yugoslav National Committee in democratic ideals since some studied under him in WWI exile, very popular, army loyal to him, leader of the only country to remain democratic in EE, force for cohesion even if the Slovaks didn't love him.
Molotov-Rippentrop Pact
1939 Soviet and German treaty of nonaggression.
S of MR Pact
Reamined in effect until operation Barbarossa in 1941, secret clause to partition Poland, signed August 1939, Sept Germany invades Poland from the west and SU from east.
Munich Agreement
Agreement permitting Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland, Sept 1939.
S of Munich agreement.
CS wonders whether to go to war, German armies tell Britain they will arrest Hitler if they support CS and fight Germany, Britain ignores it. CS loses lots of industry, and their defenses against Germany. Implied German takeover of all of CS. NOTE CS wasn't at conference.
National Self-Determination
Woodrow Wilson especially supported this, ties into support of democracy. Pleibiscites arose out of concern for this. Hitler would claim he only wanted this for Sudeten.
Nikola Pasic
Leader of Serb Radical Party, first PM of Yugoslavia in 1918 and 2 times later.
S of Pasic
Opponent of Radic, saw Yugoslavia as an extension of the Serbian state thanks to previous experience in running one. Main neogitatior in Paris Peace conference. SRP switched from radicalism to party of the Serbian establishment.
Jozef Pilsudski
Authoritarian leader of Poland.
S of Pilsudski
Dreamed of a huge multi-national Polish empire, refused initial offer of Presidency in 1922 because Dmowski drafted executive branch weakly, instituted sanacja after coup in 1926, highly federalist and believed class was more divisive than ethnicity unlike Dmowski, got lots of popular support because he was such a strong figure, involved in all aspects of governance and approves all candidates for office, creates dictatorial regime and Age of the Colonels. 1935 dies. Ambivalent and strong legacy.
Pittsburgh Agreement
1918, paved the way for creation of CS, alluded to Slovak autonomy which was not followed through in creation of the constitution which would provide a rallying point for Hlinka's SPP.
Gavrilo Princip
Assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife on June 28th, 1914.
S of Princip
Assassination angers Austria-Hungary who issue ultimatum to Serbia, Serbia refuses to allow AH police intervention, AH declares war, Russia mobilizes on behalf of Serbia, Germany mobilizes on behalf o AH, France mobilizes on behalf of Russia. WWI!
Stjepan Radic
Leader of Croat Peasant Party
S of Radic
Believed power was in the hands of the Croat peasantry, heavily supported by Croats, boycotted the 1921 assembly and the constitution is written with a strong centralist and monarchal view. Creates Croatian Block and seeks support from Allies who don't help. Wanted autonomous republic with a separate army, to mirror dualist AH empire. Courts fascists, communists to no avail and is shot in parliament.
1926-1939, Pilsudski's system of cleansing
S of sanacja
Contained inflation, reduced unemployment with increased production, streamlined administration, army protected from politicans concerns. Anti parliament, pro authoritarianism. Anti-party though created Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the government to organize.
Slovak National Uprising
August to October 1944, organized by Slovak National Council to try to depose Tiso, dissolve Slovak state and reconstruct Czechoslovakia. Ultimately unsuccessful, distanced Slovak nationalist movement from association with fascism.
Agreement signed August 1939, establishes Croatian autonomy. Created in response to threat of hitler which encouraged secessionist inclinations of Croats and Slovenes. Realization of Croat dualist dream, but angered Slovenes and Serbs, and extremist Croats who wanted to end relations with Yugoslavia, not start them all over again.
Alexandur Stamboliski
Agrarian political leader, prime minister of Bulgaria from 1919-1923
S of Stamboliski
Set up agrarian paramilitary groups to shut communists down, compulsory elections support agrarians in 1920 once Stamboliski fiddles with them a little bit, enacts massive land reform, extensive education programs, obligatory public service, made merchants and intellectuals unhappy, did not care about Macedonia. Deposed by IMRO and tsar in 1923.
Jozef Tiso
Fascist leader of Slovak state while satellite of Nazi Germany 1939-1945.
S of Tiso
Started out as leader of SPP under Hlinnka; takes over when he dies in 1939, becomes chairman in 1939. Forced to declare Slovak independence under German protection, or else Hitler would annex the region, which he basically did anyways.
Treaty of Trianon
1920 WWI Peace treaty. Hungary lost a lot of territory, industry, Magyar population etc. Romania CS and Yugoslavia gained. Created hostility and expansionist sentiments in Hungary for a long time (national flag never fully raised in interwar period), discredited democracy in the eyes of many Hungarians.
Croat Fascist Terrorist movement, linked to IMRO and Italy, appointed to rule part of Yugoslavia in 1941 as a Nazi puppet state, killing hundreds of thousands of Serbs. Defeated by Yugoslav Partisans in 1945 when Germans withdrew.
Vienna Awards
Awards where Germany tried to peacefully give Hungary its Trianon losses back. Overturned after WWII. First is parts of Czechoslovakia in 1938 which robbed CS of territory, population and major industry, 2nds is part of Transylvania in 1940. Helped to create a sturdier alliance between Hungary and Germany.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Independent of the Home Army (which at the time functioned as a sort of underground state in Poland) this was an insurrection that was a response to Himler's attempts to destroy the Warsaw ghetto and exterminate population. Led by young people with few weapons, who managed to fight for a month of April 1943. Largest uprising during the Holocaust. Ghetto turned into concentration camp.
Warsaw Uprising
1944, Polish communists (Lublin) given permission to form govt. Govt in exile sees that with the Red Army on its way, if they do not make their presence known they will lose legitimacy in Polish politics. By uprising, they tried to align the govt in exile with Polish national forces. Aug-Oct 1944. Hitler razes Warsaw, kills quarter million, Red Army arrives too late. End of Home Army and resistance.
Yugoslav Partisans
Communist resistance groups, very tightly organized and centrazlied around Tito. Fought more for Soviet Motherland than for Yugoslavia; didn't care about reprisals on local communities, just wanted to weaken Germans enough to hold them off until Soviets came to liberate and establish a communist state. Guerilla action. By 1944 had most under control. Ruthlessly killed Cetniks and Croats as they gain more and more power.
Zog I
Leader of old Albanian elites, reenters Albania and seizes power 1924. PM then President, why stop there creates royal dictatorship with him as King 1928; making sure to recognized legitimacy of constitution and parliament. Note emergence of nation as opposed to patchwork blood feudal system.
Date Young Turk Revolution, Bosnian Crisis
Date First Balkan War
Date Second Balkan War
Date First World War
Date Revolutions
Date Treaties, Hungarian Soviet Republic
Date Treaty of Trianon
Date Coup d'etat Against Stamboliski
Date Fan Noli
Date Coups d'etat in Poland and Lithuania
Date King Alexander's coup d'etat
1930, Romania
Date Return of King Carol
Date Creditanstalt Collapse
Date Coups d'etat in Estonia and Latvia
Date Munich Agreement
Date Second World War