5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Neurosecretory Cells
- Exocrine Glands
- Thymus Gland
- a Nerve cells that secrete hormones. The axons of these cells in the hypothalamus extend into the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Oxytocin and ADH are transported through these axons into the posterior pituitary where they are stored for eventual release into the bloodstream.
- b It is located beneath the sternum and between the lungs. It plays a role in the development of the immune system. This gland secretes thymosin.
- c An amino acid-based hormone that stimulates the release of glucose into the bloodstream by liver cells.
- d Released by endocrine cells in the small intestine, a hormone that stimulates the release of various digestive fluids from the pancreas.
- e Secrete substances through ducts (basically tubes). These substances can be water, enzymes, and mucus.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Another way to maintain homeostasis is a positive feedback loop. In this process, release of an initial hormone stimulates release or production of other hormones or substances which stimulate further release of the initial hormone.
- It is caused by insulin deficiency in the body. This condition means that cell are unable to obtain glucose, resulting in abnormally high blood glucose readings.
- A hormone secreted by digestive cells that stimulates other stomach cells to release digestive enzymes such as hydrochloric acid.
- This gland is located near the base of the brain and it secretes melatonin.
- It mostly contains exocrine cells, but specialized cells in the pancreas call the islets of Langerhans, function as an endocrine gland.
5 True/False questions
Thyroid Gland → There are four of these glands on the back of the thyroid gland and they secrete parathyroid hormone. This stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the bones to the blood. It has the opposite effect of calcitonin. A proper balance of calcium ions is necessary for cell division, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and neural signaling.
Hormones → Substances that are released by cells that act to regulate the activity of other cells in the body.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) → A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of sex hormones from the gonads. It stimulates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone in females. In males it stimulates the testes to secrete a group of sex hormones called androgens. An example of an androgen is testosterone.
Androgens → A group of sex hormones secreted by the testes.
Prostaglandins → Located near the lower part of the larynx, this endocrine gland secretes the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Both of these hormones are derived from the same amino acid and are synthesized with iodine atoms. Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) regulates the release of the thyroid hormones. Release of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland is important because it promotes human development because it produces calcitonin which stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the blood to the bone. The thyroid hormones help maintain normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. They also stimulate enzymes that are associated with glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, generating heat, and increasing cellular metabolic rates. Lastly, they promote carbohydrate usage over fat usage for energy.