5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Pineal Gland
- Neurosecretory Cells
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
- a This gland is located near the base of the brain and it secretes melatonin.
- b An amino acid-based hormone that regulates the level of sugar in the blood. It does this by stimulating body cells, especially muscles, to store glucose or use it for energy. It is secreted by the pancreas.
- c It mostly contains exocrine cells, but specialized cells in the pancreas call the islets of Langerhans, function as an endocrine gland.
- d A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of sex hormones from the gonads. It stimulates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone in females. In males it stimulates the testes to secrete a group of sex hormones called androgens. An example of an androgen is testosterone.
- e Nerve cells that secrete hormones. The axons of these cells in the hypothalamus extend into the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Oxytocin and ADH are transported through these axons into the posterior pituitary where they are stored for eventual release into the bloodstream.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Hormones secreted by the nervous system. Unlike neurotransmitters, they tend to affect many cells near the nerve cells that release them.
- An amino acid-based hormone that stimulates the release of glucose into the bloodstream by liver cells.
- This hormone is secreted by the pineal gland and probably helps regulate sleep patterns.
- Another way to maintain homeostasis is a positive feedback loop. In this process, release of an initial hormone stimulates release or production of other hormones or substances which stimulate further release of the initial hormone.
- Specialized cells in the pancreas that act as an endocrine gland. They secrete two amino acid-based hormones that regulate the level of sugar in the blood. The hormones are insulin and glucagon.
5 True/False questions
Exocrine Glands → Ductless organs that secrete hormones either into the bloodstream or into the extra-cellular fluid or liquid around the cell.
Gastrin → A hormone secreted by digestive cells that stimulates other stomach cells to release digestive enzymes such as hydrochloric acid.
Parathyroid Glands → Located near the lower part of the larynx, this endocrine gland secretes the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Both of these hormones are derived from the same amino acid and are synthesized with iodine atoms. Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) regulates the release of the thyroid hormones. Release of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland is important because it promotes human development because it produces calcitonin which stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the blood to the bone. The thyroid hormones help maintain normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. They also stimulate enzymes that are associated with glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, generating heat, and increasing cellular metabolic rates. Lastly, they promote carbohydrate usage over fat usage for energy.
Release-Inhibiting Hormone → These inhibit production and secretion of anterior-pituitary hormones.
Cortisol → Promotes the production of glucose from proteins making usable energy available to cells.