5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Second Messenger
- a This is an amino acid-based hormone that is secreted by the thymus gland. The hormone stimulates the maturation of T cells, which help defend the body from pathogens.
- b The area of the brain that coordinates many activities of the nervous and endocrine systems. It receives information from other brain regions and then responds to these signals as well as to blood concentrations of circulating hormones.
- c An amino acid-based hormone that stimulates the release of glucose into the bloodstream by liver cells.
- d A molecule that causes changes inside a cell in response to the binding of a specific substance to a receptor on the outside of a cell. Cyclic AMP is a common second messenger. ATP is converted to make cAMP.
- e Substances that are released by cells that act to regulate the activity of other cells in the body.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Excessive insulin causes this, a disorder that causes glucose to be stored rather than used and properly delivered to body cells. This leads to lowered blood glucose concentrations and subsequent release of glucagon and epinephrine. Symptoms include lethargy, dizziness, nervousness, overactivity, and in extreme cases, unconsciousness and death.
- A group of neuropeptides that inhibits pain messages traveling towards the brain.
- Located near the lower part of the larynx, this endocrine gland secretes the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Both of these hormones are derived from the same amino acid and are synthesized with iodine atoms. Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) regulates the release of the thyroid hormones. Release of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland is important because it promotes human development because it produces calcitonin which stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the blood to the bone. The thyroid hormones help maintain normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. They also stimulate enzymes that are associated with glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, generating heat, and increasing cellular metabolic rates. Lastly, they promote carbohydrate usage over fat usage for energy.
- Another way to maintain homeostasis is a positive feedback loop. In this process, release of an initial hormone stimulates release or production of other hormones or substances which stimulate further release of the initial hormone.
- A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of sex hormones from the gonads. It stimulates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone in females. In males it stimulates the testes to secrete a group of sex hormones called androgens. An example of an androgen is testosterone.
5 True/False questions
Amino Acid-Based Hormones → Lipid hormones that are made from cholesterol by the body. They are also fat soluble.
Release-Inhibiting Hormone → Stimulate the anterior pituitary to make and secrete hormones.
Diabetes Mellitus → It is caused by insulin deficiency in the body. This condition means that cell are unable to obtain glucose, resulting in abnormally high blood glucose readings.
Neurosecretory Cells → Nerve cells that secrete hormones. The axons of these cells in the hypothalamus extend into the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Oxytocin and ADH are transported through these axons into the posterior pituitary where they are stored for eventual release into the bloodstream.
Testosterone → An androgen secreted by the testes that regulates male secondary sex characteristics. It also, along with FSH, stimulates sperm production.