5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Releasing Hormone
- Thyroid Gland
- a Stimulate the anterior pituitary to make and secrete hormones.
- b Located near the lower part of the larynx, this endocrine gland secretes the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Both of these hormones are derived from the same amino acid and are synthesized with iodine atoms. Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) regulates the release of the thyroid hormones. Release of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland is important because it promotes human development because it produces calcitonin which stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the blood to the bone. The thyroid hormones help maintain normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. They also stimulate enzymes that are associated with glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, generating heat, and increasing cellular metabolic rates. Lastly, they promote carbohydrate usage over fat usage for energy.
- c An androgen secreted by the testes that regulates male secondary sex characteristics. It also, along with FSH, stimulates sperm production.
- d When there is a deficiency in thyroid hormones. Symptoms of this include: growth retardation, lethargy, weight gain, and low heart rate and body temperature. It can also cause cretinism, a form of mental retardation.
- e Modified fatty acids that are secreted by most cells. They accumulate in areas where tissues are disturbed or injured. Some reduce blood pressure, and others raise blood pressure. Some cause smooth muscles to contract while still others cause smooth muscles to relax. Some even cause fever. Aspirin and acetaminophen reduce fever and decrease pain by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Hormones made of amino acids. They can be a single modified amino acido or a protein made up of 3-200 amino acids. They are usually water soluble.
- It is suspended from the hypothalamus by a short stalk. The hypothalamus produces hormones that are stored in this gland or that regulate this gland's activity.
- It is located beneath the sternum and between the lungs. It plays a role in the development of the immune system. This gland secretes thymosin.
- Nerve cells that secrete hormones. The axons of these cells in the hypothalamus extend into the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Oxytocin and ADH are transported through these axons into the posterior pituitary where they are stored for eventual release into the bloodstream.
- Another way to maintain homeostasis is a positive feedback loop. In this process, release of an initial hormone stimulates release or production of other hormones or substances which stimulate further release of the initial hormone.
5 True/False questions
Estrogen & Progesterone → An androgen secreted by the testes that regulates male secondary sex characteristics. It also, along with FSH, stimulates sperm production.
Negative Feedback → One way to maintain homeostasis inside an organism or cell, is a negative feedback loop. In this process the final step in a series of events inhibits the initial signal in the series.
Digestive Cells → Specific cells that hormones travel to, to produce a specific effect.
Endocrine System → Ductless organs that secrete hormones either into the bloodstream or into the extra-cellular fluid or liquid around the cell.
Gastrin → An amino acid-based hormone that regulates the level of sugar in the blood. It does this by stimulating body cells, especially muscles, to store glucose or use it for energy. It is secreted by the pancreas.