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25 terms

Biology Ch. 14

Terms from chapter 14; Biology Honors.
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speciation
the evolution of a new species
macroevolution
evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing the origin of new taxonomic groups, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, and mass extinction
taxonomy
the branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species
biological species concept
the definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring; also called a sexual species
morphological species concept
the idea that species are defined by measurable anatomical criteria
ecological species concept
the idea that ecological roles (niches) define species
phylogenetic species concept
the idea that species are defined as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history
reproductive barrier
a biological feature of a species that prevents it from interbreeding with other species even when populations of the two species live together
temporal isolation
a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because they breed at different times
habitat isolation
a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because they breed at different habitats
behavioral isolation
a type of prezygotic barrier between species; two species remain isolated because individuals of neither species are sexually attracted to individuals of the other species
mechanical isolation
a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because structural differences between them prevent fertilization
gametic isolation
a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because male and female gametes of the different species cannot fuse or they die before they unite
hybrid inviability
a type of postzygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because hybrid zygotes do not develop or hybrids do not become sexually mature
hybrid sterility
a type of postzygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because hybrids fail to produce functional gametes
hybrid breakdown
a type of postzygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because the offspring of hybrids are weak or infertile
allopatric speciation
the formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population's becoming isolated by a geographic barrier
sympatric speciation
the formation of a new species as a result of a genetic change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed population (mutants) and the parent population
polyploid
an organism whose cells have more than two complete sets of chromosomes
adaptive radiation
the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced to new and diverse environments
gradualism model
the view that evolution occurs as a result of populations becoming isolated from common ancestral stock and gradually becoming genetically unique as they are adapted by natural selection to their local environments; Darwin's view of the origin of species
punctuated equilibrium
the idea that speciation occurs in spurts followed by long periods of little change
exaptation
a structure that has evolved in one environmental context and later becomes adapted for a different function in a different environmental context
evo-devo
the research field that combines evolutionary biology with developmental biology
paedomorphosis
the retention of juvenile body features in an adult