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Chapter 14: Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brainstem
The three major parts of the brain
Cerebrum
Largest part of the brain associated with higher mental functions
Cerebellum
Second largest part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscular activity
Diencephalon
Gives rise to the thalamus, hypothalamus, and the epithalamus
Brainstem
Part of the spinal cord that consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and the midbrain. Also coordinates and regulates visceral activities.
Falx Cerebri
Seperates the two cerebral hemispheres
Falx Cerebelli
Seperates the two cerebellar hemispheres
Tentorium
Seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
Internal carotid
Arteries that carry blood to the brain
Internal jugular
Veins that return the blood from the brain
Blood-brain barrier
Protects brain from harmful substances
Brain stem
Helps maintain homeostasis and allows brain and spinal cord to communicate
Medulla oblongata, midbrain, reticular foramen, pons
The four parts of the brain stem
Medulla oblongata
Transmits all ascending and descending impulses
Cardiac Center
Controlls heart rate in the medulla oblongata
Vasomotor center
Controlls blood pressure in the medulla oblongata
Respitory center
Regulates the rhythm of breathing in the medulla oblongata
Midbrain
Short section of the brainstem between the diencephalon and the pons
Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
Parts of the diencephalon
Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, body temperature, water and electrolyte balance, hunger, body weight, movements and secretions of the GI tract, sleep and wakefulness, growth and reproduction
7 things the hypothalamus regulates
Epithalamus
Small region superior to the thalamus
Vermis
Connects the two hemispheres of the cerebellum
Arbor vitae
Cerebellar white matter
Corpus collosum
Deep bridge of nerve fibers that connect the two cerebral hemispheres
Frontal,Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
The 4 lobes of the cerebral hemispheres
Sulcus
Shallow groove
Fissure
Deep groove
Association fibers
transmit intrahemispheric impulses
Commissural fibers
Transmit interhemispheric impulses
Projection fibers
Transmit ascending and descending impulses
Frontal eye field
controls voluntary movements of the eyes and eyelids
reasoning, judjement, emotions, verbalizing ideas and storing memories
Funtions of the association areas
Basal ganglia
Masses of gray matter located deep within the cerebral hemishperes
Receiving and analyzing sensory imput
Function of the cerebral hemispheres
emotion,art,mental imagery (3D), music
Functions of the right cerebral hemisphere
Analytical problem solving, verbal
Functions of the left hemisphere
12
Number of cranial nerves
Sensory
Is the Olfactory nerve motor, mixed or a sensory nerve?
Sensory
Is the Optic nerve mixed, sensory, or a motor nerve?
Sense of smell
Function of the Olfactory nerve
Nerve of vision
Function of the Optic nerve
Motor
Is the Oculomotor nerve sensory, motor, or a mixed nerve?
Supply extrinsic eye muscles to control movement in the eyeball and upper eyelid
Function of the Oculomotor nerve.
Motor
Is the Trochlear nerve motor, mixed, or a sensory nerve?
Controlls movement of the eyeball
Function of the trochlear nerve
Mixed
Is the Trigeminal nerve a sensory, mixed, or motor nerve?
Motor
Is the Abductens nerve a motor, sensory, or mixed nerve?
Abduction of the eyeball
Function of the Abductens nerve
Mixed
Is the Facial nerve a motor, mixed, or sensory nerve?
Sensory
Is the Vestibulocohlear nerve a sensory, motor, or mixed nerve?
Vestibular
Branch that carried impulses for equilibruim
Chochlear
Branch that carries impulses for hearing
Mixed
Is the Glossopharyngeal nerve a mixed, motor, or sensory nerve?
Carry signals from the taste buds of the posterior one-third of the tongue
Function of the glossopharyngeal nerve
Mixed
Is the Vagus nerve a motor, sensory, or mixed nerve?
Swallowing and Vocalization
Functions of the Vagus nerve
Motor
Is the Accessory nerve a mixed, motor, or sensory nerve?
Supplies nerves to the sternocloidmastoid and trapezius muscles to coordinate head movements
Function of the Accessory nerve
Motor
Is the Hypoglossal nerve a motor, sensory, or mixed nerve?
Conducts impulses for speech and swallowing
Function of the Hypoglossal nerve