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Arts and Humanities
Research - Chapter 24
Terms in this set (68)
What are Conceptual Files?
physical folders that each hold an individual category
What does CAQDAS stand for?
Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software
What is Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software?
CAQDAS for short, is computer programs for managing qualitative data
Programs that help researchers locate text and terms in databases and documents.
Code and Retrieve Packages
Permits researchers to code text
Theory building software
Permits researchers to examine relationships between concepts, develop hierarchies of codes, diagram, create hyperlinks, and nonhierarchical networks.
Examples of Theory Building Software's
What Theory Building Software is considered the best and what does it do?
NVivo10, it helps researchers find patterns in their data, explore hunches, and display data.
Concept mapping software
Allows researchers to diagram
Data conversion collection software
Such as voice recognition, converts audio into text.
Who is Glasser and Straus?
Developed a grounded theory method, which uses constant comparative methods of analysis.
The Concept of Fit
Fit enables the researchers to determine if data can be placed in the same category or if they can be related to one another. The theory must closely fit in the substantive area where it will be used.
Are the substance of the topic under the study
Provide insights into how substantive codes relate to each other.
Used in the first stage of the constant comparative analysis, captures what is going on with the data. "What category or property of a category does this incident indicate?"
How many levels of open coding is there?
Level 1 in open coding
are in vivo codes, and are derived directly from the languages of the substantive are and have vivid imagery.
ex. "enjoying twins, amazing, getting attention, feeling blessed, twin bonding"
Level 2 in open coding
where level 1 codes are condensed into broader level II codes.
For example, all of the examples given in level 1 can be condensed into one single code - "reaping the blessings"
Level 3 in open coding
More abstract level of codes. Referred to as theoretical constructs. These add scope beyond local meanings.
What happens when the core category is discovered?
Open coding ends and then selective coding begins.
a pattern of behavior that is relevant and/or problematic for participants
researchers only code data that is related to the core variable.
Basic Social Process
All Basic Social Process' are core variables, but not all core variables have to be Basic Social Process'
The process of a grounded theory evolving, in an ever modifying process.
Three types of coding?
- Word by Word coding
- Line by line coding
- Coding incident to incident
Pieces of data studied so the researchers can learn the participants view as problematic.
Ex. are words, lines, segments, and incidents
Directed towards using the most significant codes from the initial coding.
Codes chosen by the researcher that are most important for further analysis
What did Charmaz believe? and what did he do?
Believed that coding is like the bones of Analysis. He also distinguished initial coding and focused coding.
What does the analysis of qualitative materials begin with?
Typically begins with a search from broad categories and themes, Themes are never universal.
the term is used as an abstract entity that brings meaning and identity to a current experience and its variance manifestations.
A theme captures and unifies the nature or basis of the experience into a meaningful whole.
Where do themes emerge from and where do they develop?
Emerge from data nd develop within categories of the data.
Thematic analysis relies on what?
Relies on what Spradley called the similarity principle and the contrast principle.
Looks for units of information with similar content, symbols, or meanings
Guides efforts to find out how content or symbols differ from other content or symbols to identify what is distinctive about emerging themes or categories.
A family tree depicting eternal family structure
symbolic comparison using figurative language to evoke a visual analogy.
What does qualitative researchers use as an analytical strategy?
The validation phase
is concerned with whether the themes accurately represent the perspectives of the participants.
a tabulation of the frequency with which certain things or insights are supported by the data.
In the absence of standard procedures, it makes it hard to explain how to do procedures and explain how to do analyses.
the enormous amount of work required, organizing and making sense of the pages in the analysis of narrative materials.
reducing data for reporting purposes.
What did Glasser stress?
To generate a grounded theory, the basic problem must emerge from the data -- it must be discovered.
What did Strauss and Corbin state?
the research itself is only one of four possible sources of a research problem.
What two types of coding is included in the Strauss and Corbin method?
open and axial coding
data are broken down into parts and concepts identified for interpreted meaning of the raw data.
the analyst codes for context.
What is the paradigm used for in an analytic strategy?
Used to help integrate structure process.
What are the basic components of the paradigm?
conditions, actions, interactions, and consequences or outcomes
What are Ethnographers looking for?
They are continually looking for patterns in the behavior and thoughts of participants, comparing one pattern against another, and analyzing many patterns simultaneously.
Whos research sequence is used for data analysis in ethnographies?
What is Spradley's method based on?
His method is based on the premise that language is the primary means that relates cultural meaning in a culture.
What is the task of ethnographers
To describe cultural symbols and to identify their coding rules.
Spradley's sequence of 12 steps.
1. Locating an informant
2. Interviewing an informant
3. Making an ethnographic record
4. Asking descriptive questions
5. Analyzing ethnographic interviews
6. Making a domain analysis
7. Asking structural questions
8. Making a taxonomic analysis
9. Asking contrast questions
10. Making a componential analysis
11. Discovering cultural themes
12. Writing the ethnography
What are the four levels of data analysis in Spradley's method?
1. domain analysis
2. taxonomic analysis
3. componential analysis
4. theme analysis
Ethnographers identify relational patterns among terms in the domains that are used by members of the culture.
Ethnographers decide how many domains the analysis will encompass
Ethnographers analyze data for similarities and differences among cultural terms in a domain.
Domains are connected in cultural themes, which help to provide a holistic view of cultural being studied.
4 phases of McFarland and Wehbe-Alamah
Phase 1 - Ethnographers collect, describe, and record data
Phase 2 - Identifying and categorizing descriptors
Phase 3 - data are analyzed to discover repetitive patterns in their context
Phase 4 - Abstracting major themes and presenting findings.
strategies that break down the data and rearranging them into categories that facilitate comparison across cases.
strategies that involve interpreting the narrative data within the context of a whole text.
What are the three frequently used methods for descriptive phenomenology
Colaizzi, Giorgi, and Van Kaam all who are from the Duquesne school of phenomenology, based on Husserl's philosophy
researchers view the text as a whole and try to capture its meanings
researchers highlight of pull out statements or phrases that seem essential to the experience under the study.
researchers analyze every sentence.
According to Van Manen, thematic aspects of experience use three methods. What are the three methods?
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