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ServSafe Manager 6TH Edition - Chapter 1

Chapter 1
A Foodborne illness is considered an outbreak when:
* 2 or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food.

* An investigation is conducted by state and local regulatory authorities.

* The outbreak is confirmed by a laboratory analysis.
What is the cost of Foodborne illnesses?
* Loss of customers and sales

* Negative media exposure

* Lawsuits and legal fees

* Increased insurance premiums

* Loss of reputation

* Lowered staff Moral

* Staff missing work

* Staff RE-training
Most important cost of Foodborne illness is Human Cost. Victims of foodborne illness may experience?
* Lost Work

* Medical Costs and Long-Term Disability

* Death
Food Borne illnesses have declined in recent years. However, operations still face many challenges to food safety. What are they???
1. TIME- Pressure to work quickly while following food safety practices

2. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE BARRIERS: The staff may speak different languages than you do. Makes communication difficult. Cultural differences also influence how food handlers view food safety.

3. LITERACY AND EDUCATION- Staff often have different level of education. This makes it more difficult to teach food safety.

4.PATHOGENS- Illness causing microorganisms are more frequently found on types of food that were once considered safe.

5. UNAPPROVED SUPPLIERS- Food that is received from SUPPLIERS that are not practicing food safety can cause a foodborne-illness outbreak.

6. HIGH-RISK CUSTOMERS- High risk customers such as the inferm, elderly, children, etc.

7. STAFF TURNOVER- Training new staff leaves less time for food safety training.
What are the Three Categories of Contaminents?
1. BIOLOGICAL- Pathogens are the Greatest Threat to Food Safety. Include: VIRUSES, PARASITES, FUNGI, and BACTERIA. Ex: Some plants, mushrooms, and seafood carry harmfull toxins(poisons).

2. CHEMICAL- Foodservice chemicals can contaminate food. Ex: cleaners, sanitizers, and polishers

3. PHYSICAL- Foreign Objects such as Metal Shavings, Staples, and Bandages, Glass, Dirt, and even Bag Ties can get into food.

Naturally Occurring Objects such as Fish Bones in Fillets are also Physical Contaminents.
What are the Five Most Common Food-Handling mistakes?
1. Purchasing Food from Unsafe Sources.

2. Failing to Cook Food Correctly

3. Holding Food at Incorrect Temperatures

4. Using Contaminated Equipment

5. Practicing Poor Personal Hygiene
What is Time-Temperature Abuse?
Food is time-temperature abused when it has stayed too long at temperatures that are Good for The Growth of Pathogens.

Ex.* Food not held or stored at correct temp..

* Food is not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens.

* Food is not cooled correctly.
What is Cross-Contamination?
Pathogens Transferred from One Surface or Food to Another.

Ex. * Contaminated Ingrediants are Added to Food that Receives NO FURTHER COOKING.

* READY to EAT food Touches Contaminated Surfaces.

* A food handler Touches Contaminated Food and Then Touches Ready to Eat Food.

* Contaminated Cleaning Cloths Touch Food-Contact Surfaces.
Failing to Wash Hands Correctly After using the Restroom.

Coughing or Sneezing on Food.

Touching or Scratching Wounds and then
Touching Food.

Working while Sick.
What is Poor Cleaning and Sanitizing?
Pathogens can be Spread to Food if Equipment has not been Cleaned and Sanitized Correctly between uses.

* Equipment and Utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized between uses.

* Food contact surfaces are wiped clean rather than being washed, rinsed, and sanitized.

* Wiping clothes are not stored in a sanitizer solution between uses.

* Sanitizing solutions are not at the required levels to sanitize objects.
What does TCS stand for?
Time and Temperature Control for Safety
What are the Twelve TCS foods?
1. Milk and Dairy

2. Meat: Beef, Pork, Lamb

3. Baked Potatoes

4. Tofu or Soy Protein including Synthetic ingrediants such as textured soy protein in Meat Alternatives

5. Shelled Eggs (except Pasteurized eggs)

6. Poultry

7. Sliced Melons, Cut Tomatoes, Cut Leafy Greans

8. Shellfish and Crustaceans

9. Heat-Treated Plant Food. Cooked rice, Beans, and Vegetables.

10. Sprout and Sprout seeds

11. Untreated Garlic and Oil Mixtures

12. Fish
Does Ready to Eat food have to be treated like TCS food? Yes or No? and Why?
Yes.. Ready to eat food needs careful handling to prevent contamination.
Ready to Eat Foods include?
Cooked Food, Washed Fruit, Washed Vegetables (whole and cut), Deli items

Bakery Items, Sugar, Spices, and Seasonings.
What is Ready to Eat food?
Food that can be eaten without further preparation, washing, or cooking.
What Three groups are considered High-Risk for Foodbourne Illnesses?
1. Elderly People- Their immune system weakens w/age

2. Pre-School Age Children- Very young children have not built up strong immune systems

3. People with Compromised Immune Systems- People with Cancer or on Chemotherapy, people with HIV/AIDS, Transplant recipients, People taking certain
Is the manager responsible for Training and Monitoring? If yes. How often?
Yes. Staff must be trained to follow food safety procedures. They should be trained when First Hired, and on an Ongoing Basis. Safety Training MUST be documented!
What Government Agencies are Responsible for the Prevention of Foodborne illness in the United States?
1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

2. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

--State an Local Regulatory Agencies--

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

4. U.S. Public Health Service (PHS)
What is the Role of the FDA?
FDA inspects ALL food EXCEPT meat, poultry, and eggs.

Also regulates food transported across STATE LINES.

FDA issues a Model Food Code- science based code recommended for food safety regulations. Yet it Can Not Require it to be used.

Regulates Food Service for:

* Restaurants and Retail Food Stores

* Vending Operations

* Schools and Day Care Centers

* Hospitals and Nursing Homes
What is the Role of the USDA?
It regulates and Inspects Meat, Poultry, and Eggs. ALSO regulates food that crosses State Boundaries, Or Involves more than One State.
What is the Roles of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and U.S. Public Health Service (PHS)?
They Assist the FDA and USDA, and State and Local Health Departments.

They conduct Research into the causes of Foodborne Illness outbreaks.

Also assist in Investigating Outbreaks.
What are the Roles of State and Regulatory Authorities?
They write and adopt codes that regulate retail and food service operations.

Responsibilities include:

* Inspecting Operations

* Enforcing Regulations

* Investigating Complaints

* Issuing Licences and Permits

* Approving Construction

* Reviewing and Approving HACCP plans ( A variance when prepping food in certain ways which allows a regulatory requirement to be waived or changed.)