Chapter 2 Levels of Body Organization
Levels of Body Organization from Chapter 2 (Text: Medical Terminology - A Living Language)
Terms in this set (22)
All cells contain a Nucleus, Cytoplasm, and a Cell Membrane. The study of cells and their functions is called Cytology.
A tissue is like cells that are grouped together and function together to perform a specific activity. Four types of Tissue: Muscle Tissue, Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, and Nervous Tissue. The study of tissue is called Histology.
Produces movement in the body through contraction. Composed of individual cells called Muscle Fibers. Three types of muscles: Skeletal Muscles (attached to bone), Smooth Muscle (found in internal organs like intestine, uterus and blood vessels), Cardiac Muscle (found only in the heart).
Epithelial Tissue or epithelium
Found throughout the body, composed of close-packed cells that form the covering for and lining of body structures. Both the top layer of the skin and the lining of the stomach are epithelial tissue.
The supporting and protecting tissue in body structures. Structural support is provided by Bone. the shock absorber in joints is Cartilage. Tightly connecting skeletal muscles to bones are Tendons. Body fat (Adipose) provides protective padding around body structures.
Composed of cells called Neurons. This tissue forms the Brain, Spinal cord and a network of Nerves throughout the body.
Organs are composed of several different types of tissue that work as a unit to perform special functions.
A system is composed of several organs working in a coordinated manner to perform a complex function or functions.
Structures: Skin, Hair, Nails, Sweat Glands, Sebaceous Glands. Functions: Forms protective two-way barrier and aids in temperature regulation. Study of: Dermatology
Musculoskeletal System (MS)
Structures: Bones, Joints, Muscles. Functions: Skeleton supports and protects the body, forms blood cells, and stores minerals. Muscles produce movement. Study of: Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery
Cardiovascular System (CV)
Structures: Heart, Arteries, Veins. Functions: Pumps blood throughout the body to transport nutrients, oxygen and wastes. Study of: Cardiology
Hematic System (Blood)
Structures: Plasma, Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Platelets. Functions: Transports oxygen, protects against pathogens and controls bleeding. Study of: Hematology
Structures: Lymph Nodes, Lymphatic Vessels, Spleen, Thymus Gland, Tonsils. Functions: Protects the body from disease and invasion from pathogens. Study of: Immunology
Structures: Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchial Tubes, Lungs. Functions: Obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from the body. Study of: Otorhinolaryngology (ENT), Pulmonology, Thoracic Surgery
Digestive or Gastrointestinal System (GI)
Structures: Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Colon, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Salivary Glands. Functions: Ingests, digests and absorbs nutrients for the body. Study of: Gastroenterology, Proctology
Structures: Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra. Functions: Filters waste products out of the blood and removes them from the body. Study of: Nephrology, Urology
Female Reproductive System
Structures: Ovary, Fallopian Tubes, Uterus, Vagina, Vulva, Breasts. Functions: Produces eggs for reproduction and provides place for growing baby. Study of: Gynecology (GYN), Obstetrics (OB)
Male Reproductive System
Structures: Testes, Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Penis, Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, Bulbourethral Gland. Functions: Produces sperm for reproduction. Study of: Urology
Structures: Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Glands, Thymus Gland, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes. Functions: Regulates metabolic activities of the body. Study of: Endocrinology
Structures: Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves. Functions: Receives sensory information and coordinates the body's response. Study of: Neurology, Neurosurgery
Structures: Eye. Functions: Vision. Study of: Ophthalmology
Structures: Ear. Functions: Hearing and balance. Study of: Otorhynolaryngology (ENT)