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Architecture History 214
Terms in this set (42)
(cave paintings) located near Pyrenees
Mountains in France.
The Venus of Willendorf:
goddess of fertility
temples of mud brick, narrow streets, thermal mass, short buildings
earth mound, of woman lying on side w/ belly, trench around it w/ water
All human made. People still unsure what it is but
they know it is not a tomb, now 4,000 years old. Road right next to the historical monument now.
There is compression around the mound and one theory is that the compression was built on purpose; they carved limestone out of the area in an effort taking about 100 years.The mystery is: why build something with stone and then cover it with earth? The speculation is that it was the female fertility goddess lying on her side and the mound is the pregnant belly of the female fertility goddess.
Wiltshire: large circle w/ two circles in it, surrounded by stones, animism (stone death wood
live), represent orbit?
Discovered by James Mellart,
plan drawn on rock, wall paintings, ancestors buried under houses inhumation burial, worshipped vultures b/c of connection to animistic ideas
This village has been uncovered and is
about 7,000 years old. Party walls used for sharing of warmth between houses
Newgrange Passage Tomb
Located in Ireland it is a grave site, there is white crystal on the front because they
believed white crystal had spiritual power. crycal quarts, body stored at the end
stones brought from distances, related to woodhenge, built in phases - inner circle of stones, Aubrey holes, outside stones, honors the dead
Type of people found in stonehenge. Symbol of generation.
Gobekli Tepe, Turkey
cross‐shaped stone structures, like Stonehenge
Columns align with constellations (esp. Sirius)
Nabta Playa, Egypt: S
Stonehenge but rougher
same size as Stonehenge, alignments to the sky, celebrate life
is now flooded and going to be lost and this is a problem because now the
caves cannot be open to the public.
Located in the Orkney Islands, Scotland in 3100-2600 BCE. The people lived near the water so they would catch fish and lobsters and would keep them in fish tanks until they
cooked them for dinner. Inside their homes they also had built in furniture, and they valued the earth for external mass, very cozy little houses with dry stonewalls. This was
the Neolithic period, meaning the new Stone Age. They had everything they needed forsurvival and kept very warm in the winters.
Located in a plateau area of England and is very open, which allowed a view of the heavens. It is speculated that due to the geography this place had the best
view of the night sky and the solstices.
Tri= Three, Lithos=Stones. Megalith= Large stone
lintel (horizontal spanning) and post (2 vertical) trilithon
located in Malta has a lot of different conditions because it is close to Africa and also has Italian influences. Sarsan Stones started here in Hal Tarxian. These stones had a much more defined trabeated architecture. This temple is based on the idea of the female goddess. Hal Tarxian is much more refined than Stonehenge, though roughly comtemporary, and the idea of the spiral appears again.
Henge, Passage-tomb. Used Corbelling. Connection to solstice.
Hill of Tara
Place of Ancient kings in Ireland
Sky diagrams carved in stone
Ring of Brodger
Henge of stones with individual characteristics
Starts at equator, ends at Mediterranean sea. Joins in Sudan. Several waterfalls called cacteracts
Autonomous city states run by priests/kings
Cities Ur, Eridu, Uruk
Temple of worship constructed of mud
White Temple of Warka
One of the first ziggarats
Temple of Marduk- Hanging gardens
Ishtar Gate- Decorative cladding
Sargon of Akaad
Unifier of Sumerian city states.
Qin Shi Huang
259 BC. First Emperor of China. Used technology such a crossbow to conquer.
Famous for his clay soldiers.
Red land/ Black Land
Land of life/ Land of Death
Pharonic architecture lead by Imhotep.
Pyramid track and storage sheds
Origin/ inspriation for pyramid.
Wanted Pyramid without steps.
Tomb was created in three tries
1. Meidum 2. Bent Pryamid. 3 Red Pyramid
Great Pyramids of Giza
Khufu Khafre Menkaure
Illusion of orientation and size.
Underground aquifer allowed for a battery effect. Reaction created a metallic, stainless-steel look.
Ramesses II Abu Simbel1
Several statues in temple. Light pointed at face on birthday.
Largest of the temples.
Impost block: creates floating appearance
Multiple columns of different sizes
City Started by the first monotheistic pharaoh, Akander.
Son of Osiris, the revived pharoah
Beir al Bahri
In the valley of kings.On the side of Al Qurn. A pyramid looking mountain.
Long causeways for processions
Minoan city thought to be the home of Minos
Oriented North and South.
East and West sides were thicker for organization.
Lustral bath at each entrance.
Founder of Knossos
Founder of Mycenia
Royal chambers. Security aspects.
Columns in the center.
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