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US History 1877-1900: Politics and Government

Praxis II (0941/5941) Study Aid
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Morrison Waite
born 1816, appointed 7th chief justice in 1874 by pres. Grant from ohio, private study of law with his father, a whig and instrumental in organizing the republican party in ohio, was appointed to serve as one of the U.S.'s attorneys in the arbitration to settle the alabama claims against England, in SC known to be a "plain" writer, his most famous opinion was Munn v. Illinois, served until 1888
Anna Dickinson
Supporter of women's suffrage; first woman to speak before Congress
J. Ellen Foster
established the Woman's National Republican Association in 1888 and built it into an organizing machine for the Republican Party
Susan B. Anthony
Social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Patrons of Husbandry
a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.
Grand Old Party
Known as the GOP, another way of identifying the Republican Party
Prohibition Party
A venerable third party still in existence that has persistently campaigned for the abolition of alcohol but has also introduced many important reform ideas into American politics.
Greenback Party
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Granger Laws
A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.
Mugwumps
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
National Civil Service Reform League
In 1881, advocates of professionalism including Carl Schurz, E.L Godkin and Josephine Shaw Lowell, gave speeches, wrote editorials and founded this
National American Woman Suffrage Association
militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Frances Willard
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
Laissez-faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
James A. Garfield
the 20th President of the US; he died two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration.
Chester A. Arthur
He was the Vice President of James A. Garfield. After President Garfield was assassinated, September of 1881, Arthur assumed the position. He was chosen to run as Vice President, primarily, to gain the Stalwart's vote. Arthur was left in charge of the United States with no apparent qualifications. He, in turn, surprised the public with his unexpected vigor in prosecuting certain post office frauds and wouldn't help the Conklingite cronies when they came looking for favors. He was also in favor of civil service reform.
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Civil Service Reform
(CAA) , Congress took action in the late 19th century to protect ethical politicians and create standards for political service; including, a civil service test for those seeking a job in government.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
prohibited rebates and pools required railroads to publish rates forbade discriminatin against shippers and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
Sherman Antitrust Act
An 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
Interstate Commerce Commission
created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland;regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers.
Munn v. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v. St. Louis
only the federal government can regulate interstate commerce
Pacific Railway Company v. Illinois
only federal government can regulate interstate commerce
Sound money
paper money backed by gold
Free silver
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
Silver issue
The issue was whether or not to use gold or silver to back the nation's currency. Debtors, miners, farmers, and other poor people advocated free silver. this would cause inflation and make paying debts easier. Bankers and big business men wanted gold because this would stabilize this nation's currency.
Bland-Allison Act
1873 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Farmers Alliance
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
McKinley Tariff
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Omaha Platform
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
Jacob Coxey
Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.
Coxey's Army
unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief
United States v. E.C. Knight Company
Through this Supreme Court decision, manufacturing was declared an intrastate activity, and outside the jurisdiction of the Sherman Act, unlike Railroads
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Front Porch Campaign
William McKinley does not actively campaign for office and stays at his home in Canton, Ohio. He simply received pilgrimages of the Republican faithful.