Muslim Gunpowder Empires:
The Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals
Russia & Ming/Qing China
What three new empires emerged as a result of Mongol conquests in Souther Asia during the 13th and 14th century?
The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal emerged because Mongols had destroyed Muslim unity in the region.
What did all of the Muslim empires have in common regarding their administrations?
All had strong militaries and gunpowder technology All had absolute monarchies and agrarian economies (agriculturally based societies)
In what year did Constantinople fall?
Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
On what strategy did the Ottomans secure their Kingdom?
Based on military might, horesmen seized land and peasants conquered and created a "warrior aristocracy" that held power and control.
Who were the Janissaries?
elite gunpowder troops made up of boys conscripted from conquered Christian peoples
What did the Janissaries accomplish over time?
They came to dominate the military by the mid-16th century.
What was the structure of Ottoman government?
It was an absolute monarchy.
What were three problems of the Ottoman administration?
- loose connection to the people - no clear rules of succession (what leaders will follow) - political turmoil causing factions (splits) & conflict
From whom did Sultans get advice?
Viziers oversaw politics along with a huge bureaurocracy.
What is a bureaurocracy?
The 'business of government' (businessmen)
Describe 3 things that characterized Ottoman culture.
Religious tolerance, for example the Christians and Jews were considered "People of the Book" Merchants came to hold great power Istanbul become important international center of trade
How did Sultans, beginning with Suleyman the Magnificent, support the infrastructure of the empire?
They built mosques and funded other public works to beautify their city and to leave their mark.
Describe at least three reasons for the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
The Empire grew to big to be maintained Problems with succession weakened the government, and then a series of poor rulers Siege of Vienna (1688) and Battle of Lepanto (1571) weakened military and depleted the $ treasury
How did peasants eventually react to Ottoman control?
They began to revolt or flee because of the oppressive conditions.
How did the Janissaries hope to maintain their position and power?
They attempted to block any kind of reforms politically and/or socially.
What empire followed the Ottoman?
The Safavid Empire
What type of government was established by the Safavid Shah?
Absolute monarchy, restored by Tasmaph I in 1534
Who was leader of Safavid during the Golden Age (1589-1627)?
Abbas the Great
Describe three things Abbas the Great did to strengthen the Safavid Empire?
-Turkic warriors were brought under control -Persians (from Iran area) were recruited into the bureaucracy -created elite gunpowder troops made up of conquered Russian peoples
Name some characteristics of the Safavid culture.
-Changed language of writing to Persian -Created elaborate court traditions based on Persian court -Religious leaders and teachers spread Shi-ism -Silk textiles were made -New city capital placed at Isfahan
What led to the decline of the Safavid Empire?
-Abbas I kills his successors -series of weak leaders lead to Internal power struggles & more weakness
What led to Nadir Shah's demise as leader of Safavid in 1736?
1722 Isfahan fell to Afghani raiders and in 1736 the Shah was unable to rally the empire to become unified against the Afghanis.
What were similiarities between Ottoman and Safavid?
-warrior aristocracy controlled power -peasants were unhappy and many would flee or rebel -Trade and domestic production was encouraged -Women subordinate to men, losing power over time
What were differences between the Ottoman & Safavid Empires?
-Ottomans were very trade and market motivated Safavid were land locked, limiting trade
Where did the Mughals establish their Empire?
an Empire in India that was Muslim, controlling most of the region by 1528 (Indus to Ganges)
Who was the founding leader of the Mughal Empire?
Babur descendant of Tamerlain invaded India in 1526 seeking wealth but then stayed there.
How did Akbar the Great promote peace in the Mughal Empire amongst the diverse people?
-supported religious tolerance with Hindus -Encouraged intermarriage -Ended special tax on Hindus -Respected most Hindu traditions -Granted land to Hindu and Muslim warriors in return for loyalty
What was Din-i-ilahi promoted by Akbar?
a faith that encouraged respect of all peoples' beliefs
How did Akbar's policies affect women in the Mughal Empire?
-Encouraged widow remarriage while discouraging child marriage -tried to ban Sati -tried to create special market day for women -limited alcohol and drinking
In what ways were Akbar's reforms unsuccessful?
•Changes to policy did not last -peasants continue to live in poverty -later rulers reverse religious toleration -women lose rights (daughters unlucky, child marriage resumes)
What were some achievements of the Mughal Empire?
textile production, architecture (Taj Mahal was built), painting workshops held
What factors contributed to the decline of the Mughal Empire?
reversed religious toleration used up treasury $ military and government was weakened Sikh rebellions occurred and regional lords gained power foreign powers step in and take land
Who was the leader responsible for policies that weakened the Mughal government and society leading to decline?
Aurangzeb reversed religious tolerance policy & drained treasury
How did gunpowder play a role in the success of all three Muslim Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, & Mughal?
They gained power with the help of nomadic warriors, used firearms in battle, and created professional armies resulting in the warrior aristrocracy losing power.
Although these empires had gunpowder, which group of people were the first to use gunpoder in cannons?
Sikh refers to...
nonviolent religious group whose beliefs blend elements of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism
a combining of religious ideas from different faiths to make a new religion
How did the Muslims fail to compete with the increasing power of the Western World?
•ignored the growing threat of European expansion and military might •Ignored or blocked European innovations •Lost international trade routes to Europeans •European gold grew in value