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Rubenstein Chapter 6 Religion AP Human Geography

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is it harder to rid someone of their language or religion?
their religion!
what is religion for?
to make you feel at ease with the concept of life and death-inner and outer peace!
religions are both _____ and ______ the elements of the environment.
derive from and modify
What is a universalizing religion?
a religion that appeals to everyone, and a key component of the faith is spreading it
what are the top three universalizing religions?
Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism
What is an Ethnic religion?
a religion generally native to one area; the spreading of it is not important.
give an example of an ethnic religion.
hinduism
Why is there a large majority of catholics in Mexico?
Spanish conquerors established themselves there, who were catholics.
What are religions divided into?
branches, denominations, and sects
what is a branch of a religion?
a large fundimental division within a religion
what is a denomination?
a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations
what is a sect?
a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
what are the three major branches of christianity?
Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox
Howe many self-governing churches are in Eastern Orthodox?
14
40% of all Eastern Orthodox Christians belong to the ____ _____ church, of the the self-governing churches in the Eastern Orthodox branch.
Russian Orthodox
aprox. how many christians are there in the world?
2 billion
What three main branches are there of christianity?
Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant
What groups are mainly big Lutherans?
Northern Germany/skandanavians
_ of the other 13 self-governing churches in the Eastern Orthodox branch (besides Russian Orthodox) were established in the 1800's or 1900's
nine
_____, who was the ruler of the _____ empire, added to the diffusion of christianity through heirarchical diffusion.
Constantine, Roman
How many people practice Islam?
1.2 billion
where is Islam predominant?
Middle East/North Africa/Central Asia
What country has the most muslims?
Saudi Arabia
__ of muslims live outside the Middle East.
1/2
What are the two main branches of Islam?
Sunni and Shiite
what percent of all muslims are Sunni?
83%
what percent of muslims are Shiite?
16%
there is a large amount of shiites in ____
Iran
There are some Shunnis in Iraq, but there is a Shiite ____
Majority
Explain the reasons for the presence of Islam in the US: include the founder/race it pertains to
Elijah Muhammad founded the Nation of Islam in 1930 for more than 40 years
Buddha's 'earthly' name is
Siddhartha
The three main branches of Buddhism are
Mahayana Theravada Tantrayana
Buddhism includes the ____ _____ truths, as well as the _____ path.
four noble, eightfold
Buddhism is less ____ based and more of a way of ____.
faith, life
branches/denominations/sects only pertain to
UNIVERSALIZING religions!
The hearth of Bahai, a religion that is a mix of many different religions, is in _____, ______.it was founded in _______
Shiraz, Iran, 1844
Who founded the Bahai religion?
Siyyid 'Au Muhammad
Hinduism has _____ million inheritants, mostly in India
900 mill.
is the spreading of ethnic religions important to its followers?
nope
__% of Hindus are in India, _% in Nepal, and _ in the US and Britian.
97, 2, 1
what aspect makes Judiasm an ethnic religion?
they use a lunar calendar-(what you may consider a folk-culture calendar)
what is the main difference between the use of the lunar calendar between Islam and Judaism
the Islamic lunar calendar is a lot more strict, and traditional
how do Hindus dispose of their dead?
usually cremation-purifies and releases the soul from the body. Strains on India's wood supply
define hierarchical religion.
a well-defined structure of religion-organizes territory into local administrative units
define autonomous religion.
a self-sufficient religion
give an example of a self sufficient religion
Islam
Give examples of hierararchical religion
Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism
what are Buddhist pagodas?
hold an artifact used by Buddha or a representation of him-very small, individual worship goes on there
what is the third largest religion?
Hinduism-97% Indians, 2% Nepal, other 1% US and Britian
what was Buddha's "earthly" name?
Siddhartha
in what areas is Buddhism prominent?
Southeast Asia, China, Japan
where is the hearth of the Bahai religion?
Shiraz, Iran
Sikhism and Bahai are _____ religions
universalizing
who was Sikhism's first guru?(and most important)
Guru Nanak (Nu-Nak
In what year was Bahai founded?
1844
what 2 gods (in order) do most Hindus worship?
Vishnu and Siva
what is the form of worship dedicated to both Vishnu and Siva?
Shaktism
Why doesn't Buddhism compet/take over other religions?
because many ethnic religions accept both their religions and Buddhism, considering Buddhism is more of a philosophy
How old is Confucianism?
about 500 B.C. Ethnic religion
who organized Daoism and what is its main principle?
Lao-Zi-if you know nothing, you know everythin-not everything is knowable. Ethnic religion
describe Shintoism.
a religion about nature & earthly forces-gradually, emporers have become more important in the religion. Ethnic religion
who has the largest PERCENT of Jews and who has the largest NUMBER?
Israel is the largest percent-Jews have the largest number
Animism, a tribal ethnic religion in Africa, is declining quickly-why?
Universalizing religions-,mostly Islam and Christianity-are becoming predominant in that region. less than 10% remain
What is the difference in origins in ethnic and universalizing religions/why is it harder to trace back the origin of ethnic religions?
mostly, the origin for universalizing begins with one important figure-ethnic religions are old, and trace their roots back very far-usually not just figure is involved.
Why were the Bab and 20,000 of his disciples executed?
because Shiite Muslims strongly opposed their views and tried to get rid of them
The Sikhs are divided between what two countries?
Pakistan and India
Where was Mahhamud born?
Madina
the Sikhs once had their own country called ____
Punjab
What was the diaspora of the Jews?
the Roman Empire spread the Jewish population amoung their area of rule
what caused the diaspora?
the Jews tried to rebel against the Roman Empire, so they beat the heck out of them then dispersed them throughout the empire.
what river is holy for the Hindus?
the Ghanges river
What is the Alkabah?
A big black cube that only Muslims can enter-the stone inside is believed to be the beginning of earth
what is Quiblin?
the direction at which Mecca is
what is the creation story of a religion?
Cosmogony
Ethnic religions are like Environmental determinism in what ways?
they feel as though it is wrong to transform the environment
ethnic religions have very localized _____ ______.
holy grounds and/or local areas
every religion has a______, or a creation story.
cosmogony
univeralizing religions tend to use a _____ calendar, which is generally more effective.
Solar
the summer and winter ________ are huge holidays in ethnic religions.
solstices
ethnic religions tend to celebrate ______ ______ or things having to do with the earth, while universalizing religions celebrate what?
seasonal changes, important dates in an individual's life
why is there a large number of Buddhists living in Nepal and China?
because a lot of holy places where Buddha
what is a pilgrimage?
a journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred
how many holy places are there for Buddhists?
eight
ethnic religions are closely tied to the ___ _____ of a place.
physical geography
the ______ people, member of a non-abrahamic ______ religion, built a structure that celebrates the ______ solstice, called the ____ ____.
Druid, Pagan, Winter, Stone Henge