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38 terms

Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
Phobias
excessive fears of objects or situations
High order conditioning
a previously neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus; comes to elicit the conditioned response
Reconditioning
the quicker relearning of a conditioned response following extinction
Learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
conditional taste aversions
aversions to particular tastes; acquired via classical conditioning
conditioned response
a learned response to an originally neutral stimulus (which has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus)
condtioned stimulus
a previously neutral stimulus; comes to elicit a learned response due to repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
extinction
the diminishing and disappearance of a conditioned response when the CS is no longer ever paired with the US
conditioned emotional reaction
an emotional response to a particular stimulus resulting from classical conditioning
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that elicits a response from an organism where no learning or conditioning is necessary
spontaneous recovery
the spontaneous return of a conditioned response following extinction
behavior therapy
a therapeutic application of principles regarding conditioning and learning
classical conditioning
learning, usually involving affective states, due to the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
a response by an organism to an unconditioned stimulus
stimulus discrimination
the ability to differentiate, and not respond to, stimuli that are unlike a conditioned stimulus
neutral stimulus
stimulus that initially does not elicit a response; one may be learned later through conditioning
stimulus generalization
an organism responds to a stimulus because it is similiar to the original conditioned stimulus
immune system
the system that protects the body from disease
negative reinforcement
increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again by removing an unpleasant stimulus
operant conditioning
a process of learning where consequences are crucial in determining whether or not a response will occur again
schedule of partial reinforcement
a system of reinforcement where some, but not all, responses are reinforced
computer assisted instruction
kind of programmed instruction, guiding and reinforcing the student step by step
secondary reinforcers
reinforcers that gain their reinforcing power throught being associated with a reinforcer that meets a basic need
superstious behavior
behavior acquired because a random act was accidentaly reinforced by a pleasant outcome
punishment
a consequence designed to decrease the likelihood that the behavior it follows will occur again
positive reinforcement
increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again by introducig a desirable stimulus following the emitted response
law of effect
thorndike's principle regarding why learned behaviors reoccure
shaping
reinforcing increasingly more accurate manifestations of a learned response
behavior modification
applying operant conditioning principles in a systematic fashion to help improve behaviors
schedule of continous reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule where every desired response from an organism is reinforced
avoidance learning
responses an organism learns in order to avoid experience an unpleasant stimulus
radical behaviorism
the belief that only environment and genetics determine behavior
skinner box
an apparatus designed by B.F. Skinner in order to study and test the impact of operant conditioning principles on learning
cognitive map
a mental representation of our surroundings that helps us find our way
cognitive learning
learning by an organism that occurs without apparent direct reinforcement
insight learning
mentally working through a problem until the solution suddenlt comes to us
observational learning
also known as vicarious learning, it is learning through watching the behavior (and behavioral consequences) of others
latent learning
learnignt that occurs without reinforcement or apparent intent; the learning is only evident when reinforcement for it is provided later