71 terms

CLCIV 385 Midterm 1


Terms in this set (...)

An all-female ritual in honor of Adonis. Might have been a "mock-funeral". Involved plants quickly sprouting and withering, representing the "gardens of Adonis". There was a lot of laughing going on -- could've been for relief or anxiety. Could have been a reference to sexual functioning: "it's up and down real fast"
Father was King Cinyras of Cypress. Aphrodite punished Myrrha (Smyra) with the sexual desire for her father. Tricks him into intercourse. He finds out and tries to kill her. She flees and ends up being changed into a Myrrh tree. Gives birth to _____ in tree form. Extremely attractive. Attracts the attention of Aphrodite who puts him in a chest which she leaves with Persephone in the underworld since it seems like the underworld is a safe place. Persephone opens the box and sees how hot he is and also falls in love with him. So Zeus steps in and is like let's divide the boy and he will spend half the year with Aphrodite and half with Persephone in the underworld. Ends up being killed by a wild pig. His blood mixes with the nectar of Aphrodite and sprouts anemone.
Trojan hero who after the sack of Troy goes searching for a new home. He wants to see his deceased father and another dead person. The Sybil is his guide. Everyone needs a guide to the underworld. Must first "pluck from the tree this golden-leaved fruit". So when he arrives at the underworld he panics and draws his sword at the bodiless forms and flitting images he sees but the Sybil stops him. He asks what's happening here? And so Virgil describes that the crowd you see are the unburied dead and the ferryman is Charon and his passengers are the dead entombed. He may not carry any across until their bones are at rest. Finally finds father who reveals the future of Rome --> Anchises (father) reveals the settling of a new civilization, the Roman Empire. Important to note that Virgil wrote this "prophecy" knowing what happened already
Trojan prince that Aphrodite falls in love with immediately because of Zeus messing with her emotions. She goes to him disguised as a "maiden untamed" and he is like naw man, you a goddess but she was like no I got here by means of Hermes who told me to be your wife and birth your children which he accepts. So they have sex, ____ falls asleep, Aphrodite gets up and he sees she is in fine attire and realizes she is a goddess. He becomes fearful because mortal men who engage with goddesses do not typically end up too well. Aphrodite says she'll be in eternal shame because of this because she used to boast about never engaging with mortals and so she tells him never to speak of it. Nothing bad happens to him
God of aggressive war -- not smart or tactics. Parents: Zeus and Hera. Fourth generation Olympian. The Amazons (warrior women) are considered his descendants. Not many stories or sanctuaries for him because you don't want to be overly associated with such a god. He's hot so Aphrodite has an affair with him and Hephaestus catches them in a net and shows everyone but the other gods just sort of scoff at him. Aphrodite and him have three offspring: Deimus (terror), Phobus (fear), and Harmonia (harmony). Also frees death after Sisyphus traps him
Goddess of war and handicrafts (weaving). Technically daughter of Metis and Zeus but pops ate her so Athena was birthed from his head and so in some ways is considered just the daughter of Zeus (MALE CREATION IS SUCCESSFUL). Linked largely with male activities: craftsmen (shipbuilders, bridle, plough), soldiers (martial arts). Perseus's divine companion. One version of human creation involved ____ providing breath into human beings. Provides cunningness and smartness to Pandora. Sided with the Greeks in the Trojan War. ______, Helper of Heroes: favorites include Heracles and Odysseus but also helps Bellerophon, Perseus, etc. Claim to Athens after planting sacred olive tree with witness over Poseidon who had technically gotten there first
Refers to the idea that people come from the ground itself -- born from the earth. The idea is that it's better in Athens -- used as a claim to power. If you can make the claim, your claims to a particular land have more value. If your ancestor was born from the earth, then YOU were born from the earth. Examples include the human race coming about in the story of Deucalion and Pyrrha, Athens, and Thebes. Relates to being in close contact with the earth -- rivers, snakes, etc.
_______ deities are ones that live in/under ground
Battle of wits
Prometheus vs. Zeus with meat and fire. Prometheus disguises bones to look desirable and meat to look bad to trick Zeus into accepting the bad parts as offerings of sacrifice (thus, the Greeks can still eat their sacrifices). Zeus gets back at him by sticking him to a pole and having his liver being eaten out every day. Prometheus also steals fire and gives it to man, to which Zeus punishes humanity with the creation of Pandora
Birth of Aphrodite
From the genitals of Uranus fallen in the sea -- they foam and out pops this goddess. Type "Birth of _______"
Birth of Athena
"Birth of ______" <-- type that. Zeus and Metis got jiggy with it, Zeus swallowed Metis, and then nine months later this goddess is birthed from his head
Daughter of Lycaon, King of Arcadia. Two versions of myth. FIRST: Artemis and ____ are hunting bffs and ____ swears off sex. Zeus falls in love with her and either rapes her or tricks her after turning her into a bear so Hera couldn't tell. Then Hera figures out and persuades Artemis to shoot the bear with an arrow or she does it because she did not protect her virginity. As she dies Zeus catasterizes her. Has baby Arkas who also is catasterized. SECOND: ___ is devotee to Artemis, raped by Zeus, pregnancy uncovered, Artemis changes her into bear as punishment. As bear, gives birth to Arkas who is brought to Lycaon. Grows up and becomes hunter, ends up hunting mama bear. Bear runs into sanctuary of Zeus and Arkas follows her in, not knowing humans aren't allowed. So as he is about to be killed both him and mama bear are catasterized by Zeus (assume Arkas actually almost killed mama bear so she needed catasterization as well). Elements of this: divine punishment for transgression, role of adolescent
Three headed dog in the underworld to keep the souls in but also sometimes to keep people out
Brings souls from one point of the river to the underworld to the other. Guards make sure only the right souls make it to the underworld
Contest for Athens
Type "Contest for ___". So Poseidon is the first to get to ____ (Attica). Made lake Erechtheis. After him comes Athena who plants an olive tree in the Pandrosium and Cecrops is a witness. Two versions - FIRST: the gods decide, acting as a panel of judges. Athena wins because of witness. Poseidon angry-floods the Thriasian plain and lays Attica under the sea so even though if they call the city ____ they still have to do a lot of working with Poseidon. SECOND: The citizens consult the oracle after sudden appearance of spring and olive tree, who says Olive = Athena, Spring = Poseidon, pick your choice. They vote. Men vote Poseidon, women vote Athena, there's one more woman so Athena wins. Poseidon is pissed and floods everything so to appease him they punish women by taking away their vote in the assembly, children cannot be named after mothers, and women not called "___ians" -- no longer technical citizens. Puts the city of ______ on a divine level.
Alternatively spelled with a K instead of a C. The son of heaven and earth. Mother earth thinks up plan and says "who dares take on your daddy?" So ____ is like me and he hides as soon as heaven comes to earth next time and he takes the sickle and uses it to cut off Uranus's (heaven's) genitals. Now heaven is gone so everyone can leave earth and ___ now rules but he is not a good lad. He is the father of Hestia, Hera, Hades, Demeter, Poseidon, and Zeus with mother being Rhea. Swallows all kids until tricked into swallowing a stone instead of Zeus who grows, trains, and eventually takes over power from his father who throws up the other kids
Traditional stories with collective importance. Always some sort of context/reason for the story. Rich in metaphors and symbols. Function: offer ways of understanding and integrating one's experience in a broader framework (society). Must have a function to be a _____. Believed to be fact, time in the "remote past", and principle characters are nonhuman
Parents are Cronus and Rhea. Goddess of harvest (anything coming out of the ground). Frequently shown with wheat stalk. Cornucopia -- if she does her job well there will be plentiful harvest. Occasionally seen with a royal staff or crown.
Wife: Pyrrha. "Fond of right". Son of Prometheus. Associated with human race. Zeus floods the earth because humans suck and these two survive because ____ is the best man there was. See an oracle who says cover your heads, loosen your robes, throw your mother's bones behind you. So they throw stones behind them and the stones turn into people. Ones he throws turn into men
Husband: Deucalion. "Scrupulously reverent". Daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora. Associated with human race. Zeus floods the earth because humans suck and these two survive because hubby is the best man there was. See an oracle who says cover your heads, loosen your robes, throw your mother's bones behind you. So they throw stones behind them and the stones turn into people. Ones she throws turn into women
(Gaea) Goddess of earth. First generation goddess. Reproduces without partner Uranus. Brings forth mountains and sea. Those born of Earth and Uranus were the most fearful children. Gave Zeus the thunderbolt power which she had kept hidden until then
(Earth) Goddess of earth. First generation goddess. Reproduces without partner Uranus. Brings forth mountains and sea. Those born of Earth and Uranus were the most fearful children. Gave Zeus the thunderbolt power which she had kept
12 miles from Athens. Demeter comes here and is accepted by King Celeus and becomes the nurse for his youngest son Demophoon. Tries to make him immortal by putting him in the fire every night but then his mom gets suspicious, watches her, catches her doing this and comes forward and then Demeter throws the baby (in some versions, he dies) and then reveals herself as being the goddess Demeter. Demands a temple be built for her in _____ and then withdraws fertility from earth in anger. Nothing grows for a year --> famine. Gods also deprived of sacrificial offerings so Zeus takes action sending Hermes to Hades to get Demeter's daughter back from underworld (more under Persephone)
Eleusinian Mysteries
The _____ ______ were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. They are the "most famous of the secret religious rites of ancient Greece"All-Greek ritual that occurs annually in the fall. Seven day ritual. At the end they all sit in this hall and see something but we don't know what it is (promise of regeneration? promise of happy afterlife?)
Also known as Elysinian fields. "Regions of joy" -- this is where you want to be in the underworld. Does your behavior help you get here? Not really, it's just really if the gods grant you to live here after you die
Zeus gives him Pandora when Prometheus pisses him off by giving fire to humanity
Roman name: Cupid. Son of Aphrodite and Ares and assists her. Shoots arrow that causes feelings of attraction. Even worse for Gods than humans. In the Hesiod: God of sexual love. Fourth element in creation (intercourse and reproduction)
Phoenician princess and sister of Cadmus. Zeus is a bull and appears looking fine and ____ was with friends in Asia and she rides the bull and he takes her across the sea to ______ and they have sex, and the continent gets named after her. They have three children: Minos (king --> Minoan civilization), Sarpedon, and Radamanthys.
Five Races of Humankind
FIRST: Gold age - before Zeus. Men were content at home, had no towns with moats and walls around them, no alarms. People were un-aggressive, un-anxious living in peace, eternal Spring. Lived like gods -- no trouble or labor.
SECOND: Silver - Under Zeus. Slightly worse than gold. Men built houses and plant seeds. This race of man is dumb, refuse to honor the gods with sacrifice and couldn't hold back violence.
THIRD: Bronze - dispositions took on aggressive instincts, quick to arm, yet not entirely evil.
FOURTH: Iron. Base vein let loose all evil. Modesty, truth, and righteousness fled earth and trickery, plotting, violence took over. Hesiod has an in-between category before this that is "race of heroes" in which people are god-like (where Oedipus, Cadmus, Trojan Wart people fit).
Then Zeus causes the flood and FIFTH comes about. Men separate from gods -> Age of Ovid (Ovid's people come from stones, sons of Deucalion and Pyrrha but not via conception but rather a link with the earth. People are born from and tied to the earth
(Erinyes) Come about from the blood of Uranus' balls after being cut off by Cronus. These hunt a person who kills a member of his own bloodline. Chase Orestes
Third part of Greek Tragedy written by Aeschylus. Main characters: Furies, Apollo, and Athena. Orestes is accused of killing his own bloodline so he is hunted by furies because he killed his mom after she killed his father (not a member of HER bloodline). This becomes the first murder trial. Athena is the judge, Orestes is the accused, and Apollo is the defender. The argument is that mother is nurturer but the parent is the one who mounts her -- the father. So they say the mother is nothing but a vessel. Apollo argues that Athena herself is undeniable proof of this since she was birthed by Zeus, so Athena agrees and says offspring are entirely the father's child. Orestes wins
Greek Marriage
Aspect of Greek society. Type "Greek ______". Father and husband negotiate it, women (daughter and mother) have no voice, daughter move's into husband's house but can acquire power and authority by moving there
Son of Cronus and Rhea. Husband of Persephone. Kind of the underworld. Not involved much with inhabitants of earth
The most beautiful woman in the world. Abducted by Paris while he is a guest of her husband, Menelaus. Starts Trojan War
Lame son of Hera alone, which is why he is lame. (Other version claims born of Zeus and Hera and Zeus threw him off Olympus for standing up to him for Hera and that's what crippled him. God of metallurgy -- whenever something needs to be made, you go to him. Makes Pandora. Marries Aphrodite after trapping mother in throne in anger and Zeus promises whoever gets her out that he can marry Aphrodite. Dionysus gets him drunk and he gets her out and marries Aphrodite. Gets cheated on by Aphrodite with Ares. Builds net, catches them, brings other gods to see and get sympathy, they don't really care -- sort of act like it is expected
Daughter of Cronus and Rhea. Married to Zeus. Zeus originally tried to seduce her as a Cuckoo, pretending to be cold asking for warmth so she cradles him against her chest and then turns into himself to take advantage of the situation to which she says only if you marry me so he does. Fights with Zeus a lot. Known as "cow-eyed". Goddess of marriage and women's fertility. Tries to prevent her husband from cheating and tends to chase Zeus's out-of-marriage children around. Chases Io as a cow. Before Zeus she was independently worshiped but is still an important goddess
Messenger of the gods and gets souls to the underworld (as psychopompos). God of travel, tricks, commerce, and thievary. Parents are Zeus and Maia (daughter of Atlas, a Titan). Lives on Olympus. Has to do with everyone outside of main society -- travelers, thieves, merchants (those in movement). Beardless Hermes represents him in adolescents. Transition to adulthood -- contests (athletic contests: people might pray to Hermes prior to participation in an athletic contest), and cattle raiding (only Greek god involved in this because of the Hymn to Hermes where he steals 50 cattle from Apollo without anyone noticing
Stone pillar with bearded male (typically Hermes) head and erect phallus. Found anywhere really. Could be a sign of fertility (works well because he is responsible for flocks of goats, sheep, and swine, and also "lucky finds" in fertility), or of protection (warding off evil)
Wrote Theogony
Oldest daughter of Cronus and Rhea. Goddess of the hearth (the fireplace) -- fixed place in the house. Protectress of the home. Never left Olympus. Roman name is Vesta. Aphrodite does not have power over her.
Son of Theseus who had divorced Amazon for Phaedra so had a sexually cursed family line. Story according to textbook: Phaedra fell in love with ____, son of her husband and asked him to sleep with her but he hated all women so he said no and fearing he might accuse her she accused him of rape so then Theseus prayed to Poseidon for the destruction of _______ and so when _______ is riding his chariot he drives it along the shore and a Poseidon makes a bull emerge and drags ___ to his death. Phaedra's truth comes to light and then she hangs herself.
___ is adolescent in the Greek world and a hunter (link with Artemis, devoted to her). After death, Artemis asks Asclepius (son of Apollo and mortal woman) to resurrect _____ but then Asclepius is killed by Zeus for setting up his own immortalization.
____ as cult hero: localized hero rather than worshiped by the whole of Greece. In Athens there's a tomb for him and they've found a temple for him in Troezen because in a version Theseus removes him from Athens thinking he could be king in Troezen.
There's a ritual that before getting marries, girls would cut a lock of their hair and weep for ____ as the transition from childhood to adulthood.
Euripides, _____ I: Tragedy play. Followed legend, Phaedra taking the initiative in Athens.
Sophocles, Phadra: Theseus is away and ____ has no part in the action.
Euripides, ____ II: 428 BCE. Aphrodite is mad that ___ is a prick about her field and makes all of this happen as punishment. Is about the destructive power of desire, the destructive power of words, the nature of divinity, moderation, and rules of living together in Athens
____ refusal to sex in Athens is seen as refusal to become a productive citizen
Wrote Hesiod, Iliad, Odyssey,
Gods take sides
Shows Zeus as being constrained by his obligations to other gods and goddesses, whose allegiance to Zeus values in his quest to maintain his sovereignty without strift
Hymn to Aphrodite
Attributed to Homer. This is where Anchises comes in (see his section) -- she falls in love with him because of Zeus, convinces him she's mortal sent by Hermes to wed him, has sex with him, gets up and he sees her clothes and realizes she's a goddess and then he freaks out because goddess-man relationships always end poorly, she is embarrassed AF, and so she tells him not to tell anyone. Nothing bad happens except she can no longer brag about being mortal-sex free
Hymn to Demeter
Attributed to Homer. Probably composed from 650-550 BCE. Begins with Hades grabbing Persephone as she picks flowers in a meadow and drags her to the underworld with the permission of her father, Zeus. Demeter finds out what happened nine days later and wanders the earth searching until Helios tells her. Pissed that Zeus was involved, she becomes an old woman traveling among men -- now see Eleusis to learn more about this -- after Demeter refuses to let anything grow for a year, Zeus tells Hades he needs to give Persephone back. He first either tricks, forces, or she takes willingly a pomegranate seed and if you eat anything in the underworld you cannot leave so then what happens is Persephone can be up with her mom for 2/3 of the year and with Hades in underworld for 1/3 (winter). Ultimately this myth is about agriculture (only being possible 2/3 of the year), life and death (separation felt by Demeter and Persephone is like mortals' separation feeling with death, although it is not final), matriarchal core (men decide marriage), separation in marriage, loss, love, acceptance
Hymn to Hermes
Attributed to Homer, 700 BCE. He is born at dawn, by lunch he has made a lyre, then by evening he has stolen 50 cattle from Apollo completely silently (which is impossible) and had a barbecue. So then Apollo accuses him and then Zeus comes over to judge who's right and laughs because this infant is so sneaky. He decides that Hermes needs to give back the cattle and give Apollo the tortoise lyre he made. Then Hermes makes a flute for himself
Indo-European Culture
Sky God: known in different names and different languages -- Greek: Zeus; Latin: Jupiter; Tiu, Diaus Pitar. Sanctuaries on mountains.
Languages and sharing stories. Trifunctional myths -- 3 divisions: sovereignty, war, and abundance/fecundity
See Indo-European. Proto-Indo-European are thought to have stemmed from the same language. Trying to come up with a starter language that is a reconstruction - that is the proto language. Within proto-Indo-European are a bunch of sub-languages are Celtic, Germanic, Italic, Balto-Slavic, Albanian, Greek, Anatolian, Tocharian, and Indo Iranian. From these can speculate on the culture.
Dumezil: abundance/fertility, sovereignty, war.
Judgement of Paris
The scene: wedding of Peleus and Thetis. The problem is that everyone is invited except Eris so she is annoyed and gets this golden apple and throws it into the wedding party and says it's for the most beautiful. Three people claim the apple -- Hera (offers royal power, would have to kill older brother AKA sovereignty), Athena (offers victory in war AKA war), and Aphrodite (offers the most beautiful woman in the world AKA sex). They go to Zeus to judge but he doesn't want to get involved so they go to Paris, son of Priam, prince of Troy and offer them the things listed above if chosen. He chooses Aphrodite and so he gets Helen but she's married to Menelaus and the Greeks gather to get her back because of a pact that if anything ever happens to Helen they will band together to make sure the person who does it is punished -- > Trojan War
The translation of a being or object from earth to a station among the stars, so that the being or object becomes a star, or more usually, a star cluster. Done through divine agency. It is an honor for the object/being. Its result is unclear
Got raped by Zeus as a swan. She has four children, two by Zeus and two by her husband. Castor and Pollux are the brothers, Helen and Clytemnestra are the sisters. Clytemnestra's husband is Agamemnon. _____ actually lays an egg.
"Books of transformation" -- talks about bodies changed so looking at all those stories of Greek mythology in which a character changes from A to B.
Daphne: Nymph being chased by Apollo because he wanted to have her but she didn't want to be had by him so she fled and prayed and then she turned into a tree
Lycaon: bad guy, king, tries to feed Zeus a human so he is punished by being turned into a wolf -- this is where werewolves come from
Third and fourth generation of gods. Third includes Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Demeter, Hera, Hestia, and sort of Aphrodite. Fourth includes Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Ares, and Hephaestus
Oral Tradition
Stories passed via word of mouth. Greek mythology was a living ___ ______ -- therefore there is no "true" version because different versions work together and elements are added as times change to compensate and explain current societal norms
______ killed his mom for killing his father. Is then hunted by Furies for killing member of own bloodline. Brought to the first murder trial. Apollo defends _____ and Athena judges. He wins when it is ruled that only the father counts as the true parent and the mother is a vessel
Created by Hephaestus by the order of Zeus as punishment to humans because Prometheus gave them fire. Athena and Aphrodite put things in as did Hermes (put bad things in). Said to be man's destruction. Basically brings women to the world
AKA Kore. Daughter of Demeter and Zeus. Wife of Hades, thus queen of the underworld. See Hymn to Demeter. Could be a variation of ancient fertility goddess created to adapt mythology
Wife of Theseus who divorced Amazon for her. See story of Hyppolytus. Attempts to seduce him, fails, gets him killed, and then kills herself. Also the name of one of the myths of Hyppolytus in tragedy by Sophocles. In it Theseus was away and possibly Hippolytus had no part in the action
God of the natural world involved with sea (Trident), earthquakes, and horses. Parents are Cronus and Rhea. Father of Bellerophon (mother is Corinth)
Potiphar's Wife
This is a type of folktale story. Lustful female (wife/mother) unsuccessfully tries to seduce hansome man (husband's brother/slave/guest/friend/son). The result is that the man suffers (either dies, is imprisoned, becomes a hero, is cursed, or killed). So basically a lustful woman seduces someone she shouldn't and bad things happen. The specific story of _____ ___ occurred in 5th century BCE. Genesis 39. P_____ buys Joseph. P's wife proposes over and over again and Joseph refuses. Wife accuses Joseph and he is then imprisoned (later rescued by Yahweh). Greek versions include the story of Bellerophon and queen of Corinth as well as the story of Hippolytus
Parents are Iapetus and Themis. "Subtle, shifting-scheming". In one version thought of as the creator of men. In the division of sacrifice he disguises bones to look good to trick Zeus into picking it. Then steals fire and gives it to man. Gets tied to a rock and every day an eagle comes and picks out his liver which grows back during the night
The space below the earth -- like a god but a space. Third part of creation -- needed somewhere after earth. The place where punishments are doled out in the underworld
"Collection of different types of oral poems". Includes Hymns (praise poems) to muses and Hecate. Known most for the catalogs and dramatic tales (chartering Zeus' rise to power, referencing other myths), lists many names (catalogs). No systematic order.
The first generation of ______ were descendants of Gaea and Uranus who originally gave birth to Twelve ________, six males and six females. Males were Coeus, Cronus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus and Oceanus, while females were Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Rhea, Theia, Themis, Tethys
A ten-year series of battles fought in Thessaly, consisting of most of the Titans (an older generation of gods, based on Mount Othrys) fighting against the Olympians (the younger generations, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus) and their allies. The war was fought to decide which generation of gods would have domain over the Universe; it ended in victory for the Olympians. Theogony and Hesiod are part of this
Transfer of myths between cultures
Myths are adapted between cultures to better fit and explain societal norms and natural occurrences in said culture. Transferred regionally through trade, migration, etc.
Hermes is a prime example of this. Originally applied by scholars analyzing Native American stories. More universal figure of deceit and wiliness -- always ambiguous, smartness in a bad way (doing sneaky things, can be bad but also can be good). ______ stories involve the figure and the one being deceived but roles change. An archetype in psychology.
Social dimensions: known for mockery of laws/authority, disruptive, creative and energetic, "culture heroes". Outsiders trying to become insiders.
Divine _______s: Hermes, Prometheus
Human _______s: Sisyphus (when death comes to get him, he traps him and suddenly no one dies and so Ares frees Death who then carries Sisyphus to the underworld but his wife didn't bury him so Hades sends him to go have her do that but he stays up there via trickery and then finally dies of old age and then ends up perpetually pushing a boulder up a hill in the underworld
Trojan War
See Judgement of Paris for its beginnings.
10 year siege. Greeks versus Trojans. Gods take sides -- Athena, Hera, Poseidon, Hermes for Greeks. Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Leto for Trojans
Parents are Earth and Tartarus. Battles with Zeus over rule of the cosmos. Zeus wins. Big monster
Place where people go when they die. Ruled by Hades and Persephone
Heaven. Born from Earth without partner. Defeated by Cronus. Second generation of gods
Sky-god. Son of Cronus and Rhea. Defeats Cronus. King of Olympus. Controls the thunderbolt. Very important in a lot of myths