FIRST: Gold age - before Zeus. Men were content at home, had no towns with moats and walls around them, no alarms. People were un-aggressive, un-anxious living in peace, eternal Spring. Lived like gods -- no trouble or labor.
SECOND: Silver - Under Zeus. Slightly worse than gold. Men built houses and plant seeds. This race of man is dumb, refuse to honor the gods with sacrifice and couldn't hold back violence.
THIRD: Bronze - dispositions took on aggressive instincts, quick to arm, yet not entirely evil.
FOURTH: Iron. Base vein let loose all evil. Modesty, truth, and righteousness fled earth and trickery, plotting, violence took over. Hesiod has an in-between category before this that is "race of heroes" in which people are god-like (where Oedipus, Cadmus, Trojan Wart people fit).
Then Zeus causes the flood and FIFTH comes about. Men separate from gods -> Age of Ovid (Ovid's people come from stones, sons of Deucalion and Pyrrha but not via conception but rather a link with the earth. People are born from and tied to the earth
Son of Theseus who had divorced Amazon for Phaedra so had a sexually cursed family line. Story according to textbook: Phaedra fell in love with ____, son of her husband and asked him to sleep with her but he hated all women so he said no and fearing he might accuse her she accused him of rape so then Theseus prayed to Poseidon for the destruction of _______ and so when _______ is riding his chariot he drives it along the shore and a Poseidon makes a bull emerge and drags ___ to his death. Phaedra's truth comes to light and then she hangs herself.
___ is adolescent in the Greek world and a hunter (link with Artemis, devoted to her). After death, Artemis asks Asclepius (son of Apollo and mortal woman) to resurrect _____ but then Asclepius is killed by Zeus for setting up his own immortalization.
____ as cult hero: localized hero rather than worshiped by the whole of Greece. In Athens there's a tomb for him and they've found a temple for him in Troezen because in a version Theseus removes him from Athens thinking he could be king in Troezen.
There's a ritual that before getting marries, girls would cut a lock of their hair and weep for ____ as the transition from childhood to adulthood.
Euripides, _____ I: Tragedy play. Followed legend, Phaedra taking the initiative in Athens.
Sophocles, Phadra: Theseus is away and ____ has no part in the action.
Euripides, ____ II: 428 BCE. Aphrodite is mad that ___ is a prick about her field and makes all of this happen as punishment. Is about the destructive power of desire, the destructive power of words, the nature of divinity, moderation, and rules of living together in Athens
____ refusal to sex in Athens is seen as refusal to become a productive citizen
Attributed to Homer. Probably composed from 650-550 BCE. Begins with Hades grabbing Persephone as she picks flowers in a meadow and drags her to the underworld with the permission of her father, Zeus. Demeter finds out what happened nine days later and wanders the earth searching until Helios tells her. Pissed that Zeus was involved, she becomes an old woman traveling among men -- now see Eleusis to learn more about this -- after Demeter refuses to let anything grow for a year, Zeus tells Hades he needs to give Persephone back. He first either tricks, forces, or she takes willingly a pomegranate seed and if you eat anything in the underworld you cannot leave so then what happens is Persephone can be up with her mom for 2/3 of the year and with Hades in underworld for 1/3 (winter). Ultimately this myth is about agriculture (only being possible 2/3 of the year), life and death (separation felt by Demeter and Persephone is like mortals' separation feeling with death, although it is not final), matriarchal core (men decide marriage), separation in marriage, loss, love, acceptance See Indo-European. Proto-Indo-European are thought to have stemmed from the same language. Trying to come up with a starter language that is a reconstruction - that is the proto language. Within proto-Indo-European are a bunch of sub-languages are Celtic, Germanic, Italic, Balto-Slavic, Albanian, Greek, Anatolian, Tocharian, and Indo Iranian. From these can speculate on the culture.
Dumezil: abundance/fertility, sovereignty, war.
Third and fourth generation of gods. Third includes Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Demeter, Hera, Hestia, and sort of Aphrodite. Fourth includes Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Ares, and Hephaestus The first generation of ______ were descendants of Gaea and Uranus who originally gave birth to Twelve ________, six males and six females. Males were Coeus, Cronus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus and Oceanus, while females were Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Rhea, Theia, Themis, Tethys