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Chapter 6

implicit memory
The memory of how to perform a task is
episodic memory
The memory of things that happen to us or occur in our life are referred to as
Abe and Rose, who have been married for 13 years, are discussing the events that led to their very first date. Rose distinctly remembers giving Abe her telephone number at a party, but Abe is certain that he got her number from her best friend, Linda. Abe and Rose have different _______________ memories of the event.
The type of memory one would use to remember the seven wonders of the ancient world is
what it was and how one did it
The distinction between semantic and procedural memory is the difference between
In-line skating and tap dancing skills would be stored in _______________ memory.
prospective memory
The memory that tends to fail when we are feeling stressed, distracted, and preoccupied is called
The process of changing information so that we can place it in memory is called
Which of the following is not a psychological format that can be used to transform information to be encoded?
-Visual code
-Acoustic code
-Sensory code
-Semantic code
While doing his homework Joe noticed that he was having difficulty remembering a formula for his statistics assignment. He realized he would have to review it more often to be able to recall the information. Psychologists refer to this as
maintenance rehearsal
By mentally repeating a telephone number after looking it up for the first time, Jim was engaged in
The process of locating and returning information to consciousness is referred to as
The correct order of events in memory processing is
-retrieval, storage, and encoding
-storage, encoding, and retrieval
-encoding, retrieval, and storage
-encoding, storage, and retrieval
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed the three stages of memory referred to as
-episodic, semantic and implicit
-sensory, semantic, and implicit
-short-term, near-term, and long-term
-sensory, short-term, and long-term
While Tanya is visiting the pet store she looks down an aisle and catches a glimpse of an animal that suddenly darts across the aisle. Which of the following enable the conscious registering of the animal's movement?
-Saccadic eye movements
-A and b
-None of the above
The stage of memory that first encounters stimuli is called
If an image of Abraham Lincoln's face was flashed on a screen, the viewer could hold the visual impression in his or her sensory register as a
-memory code
-sensory trace
-memory trace
-all of the above
In 1960, George Sperling modified McDougall's method of _______________ by introducing the _______________.
-partial-report procedure; whole-report procedure
-whole-report procedure; partial-report procedure
-sensory register; partial-report procedure
-whole-report procedure; sensory register
eidetic memory
Another term for "photographic memory" is
all but disappear
Emily can look at a detailed picture, turn away, and several minutes later recall the particulars of the picture with exceptional clarity. We can expect that by the time she completes high school, this exceptional ability will
You are taking notes while listening to a lecture. The sensory register holds the information as _______________ in your _______________ memory.
-echoes; iconic
-echoes; echoic
-icons; eidetic
-echoes; eidetic
Visual images are to _______________ memory as auditory images are to _______________ memory
-echoic; iconic
-sensory; motor
-iconic; echoic
-eidetic; sensory
Memory traces of sounds
-decay faster than those of visual stimuli.
-decay at about the same rate as those of visual stimuli.
-decay more slowly than those of visual stimuli.
-do not decay.
The memory that enables people to manipulate information in their mind is called
-short-term memory.
-working memory.
-active memory.
-all of the above
Visual stimuli are most commonly retained in short-term memory by
-continuing to look at the stimulus until an icon of the image appears.
-forming an eidetic image of the stimulus.
-slowing saccadic eye movements to one or two per second.
-encoding visual stimuli as sounds that can be rehearsed.
serial-position effect
Dana can only remember a few of the first and last items on her grocery list. This is an example of the
primacy effect
Eric can only remember the first few items on his review sheet. This is an example of the
recency effect
Paul can only remember the conclusions of his speech. This is an example of the
After a single presentation, Megan can recall her friend's long-distance telephone number and five-digit extension even though the sequence contains 15 digits. One reason for her ease of recall is that she combined the digits into smaller groups. This process is called
rote memory
The ability to remember the letters of the alphabet or the words in the Pledge of Allegiance is due to
The idea that the appearance of new information in short-term memory displaces the old information suggests that STM store is
The evidence for the popular idea that all of our experiences are in permanent long-term storage is
The way in which we conceptualize our worlds, our beliefs, and our expectations are built around cognitive structures called
People who reconstruct their experience according to their prejudices are
-wanting to justify their prejudice beliefs.
-allowing a schema to influence their recall.
-a and b.
-none of the above.
The idea that long-term memories are not reliable representations of past experiences finds support in evidence that
-recollections of a car crash can be influenced by the way in which it is labeled.
-short-term memory delays the passage of information into long-term memory.
-eyewitness testimony is for the most part accurate.
-eidetic imagery is rare among adults.
Which of the following is not true regarding long-term memory?
a. It is analogous to a biochemical "hard drive."
b. The capacity is unlimited.
c. There is a tendency to replace new information with old information.
d. The use of cues for retrieval allows for easier access to stored information.
A psychology student wants to know how to remember the various aspects of operant conditioning. His teacher tells him to relate it to classical conditioning, which he already knows. This is an example of _______________ rehearsal.
a. elaborative
b. maintenance
c. strengthening
d. all of the above
The difference between rote learning and meaningful learning is the difference between
a. episodic memory and semantic memory.
b. maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal.
c. short-term memory and long-term memory.
d. sensory processing and semantic processing.
The _______________ model of memory proposes that memory consists of a single dimension that varies in depth.
a. three-stage
b. state-dependent
c. context-dependent
d. levels-of-processing
One difference between the Atkinson-Shiffrin model as it relates to the levels-of-processing model of memory is:
a. The levels-of-processing model conflicts with the stages described in the Atkinson-Shiffrin model.
b. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model uses the "depth concept" of the levels-of-processing model in each stage of learning.
c. According to levels-of-processing model, the long-term stage could still have varying levels of memory endurance.
d. Both of the models use prefer elaborative rehearsal as means for memory endurance over maintenance rehearsal.
Craik and Lockhart argue that not all so-called long-term memories are equivalent in how readily they are stored, but rather that memory storage and recall depends upon the _______________ of the processing that takes place.
The mnemonic device "i before e except after c" is based upon a(n)
Benjamin can remember exactly where he was and what he was doing when he heard about the death of his big brother. This is called
a. repressed memory.
b. flashbulb memory.
c. elaborative memory.
d. painful memory.
Which of the following is true regarding long-term memory organization?
a. Long term memory is usually well organized.
b. People organize information according to hierarchical structure.
c. Categorization of stimuli is a basic cognitive function used to store information efficiently.
d. All of the above.
_______________ is formed in long-term memory by organizing information into groups of classes according to common or distinct features.
a. Eidetic network
b. Mental classification
c. Hierarchical structure
d. Cognitive directory
Zelda is trying to remember the name of the actor who played the lead in the film Titanic. She recalls the actor's appearance and what his name sounds like but just cannot come up with his name. Zelda is experiencing
a. state-dependent recall failure.
b. tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon.
c. hierarchical restructuring.
d. flashbulb memory.
One conclusion of Brown and McNeil's classic study of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT) is that the participants tended to store the information in LTM according to
a. semantic and visual codes.
b. acoustic and visual codes.
c. acoustic and semantic codes.
d. mnemonic devices.
Evidence from a number of studies demonstrates that recall is _______________ when the person is tested in a place different from where the material was learned in the first place. These findings illustrate the significance of _______________ memory.
a. better; context-dependent
b. worse; context-dependent
c. no different; state-dependent
d. inferior; state-dependent
Dij` vu is an example of _______________ type of memory
a. context-dependent
b. flashbulb
c. elaborative
d. state-dependent
In the effects of mood on memory, a happy mood may evoke happy memories, and a sad mood may evoke sad memories. These effects illustrate
a. context-dependent memory.
b. state-dependent memory.
c. feeling of knowing.
d. elaborative rehearsal.
Brooke works the evening shift at the local television station. In the morning she has an important exam for which she must study after she gets off work. During the last hour of her shift she drinks so much coffee that she feels jittery while she is studying. Under these circumstances, what might Brooke do just before the exam to increase her recall?
a. Take a nap so that she will feel rested after her late study sessions.
b. Review the information in the same place she studied the night before.
c. Review the information near the room in which the exam will be given.
d. Drink enough coffee to give herself the jitters again.
The classic studies that first made use of nonsense syllables in the study of forgetting and memory were pioneered by
a. George Miller.
b. Lloyd and Margaret Peterson.
c. Hermann Ebbinghaus.
d. William James.
A student taking a multiple-choice exam generally relies on the _______________ memory task.
a. paired association
b. recall
c. relearning
d. recognition
In taking the position that only fill-in-the-blank tests are suitable for testing the knowledge of students, Professor Terry is mainly interested in measuring
a. recognition.
b. savings.
c. relearning.
d. recall.
The concept of method of savings was developed by Ebbinghaus to study the efficiency of _______________.
a. recognition
b. recall
c. repression
d. relearning
In Ebbinghaus's classic curve of forgetting, the greatest memory loss occurs
a. slowly over a course of weeks.
b. very slowly for a period of days and then rapidly increases.
c. at a consistent rate over weeks.
d. most rapidly after the material is learned.
Forgetting that occurs because new information inhibits the retrieval of previously learned information or because previously learned information inhibits the retrieval of new information is explained by
a. interference theory.
b. decay theory.
c. repression.
d. displacement.
According to interference theory we forget material because
a. new material displaces old material in our memory
b. old material displaces the new material in our memory.
c. new material is incompatible with old material in our memory.
d. a and b only.
At college Jim is learning to speak French, but he keeps using Spanish words he learned in high school. This is an example of
a. retroactive interference.
b. repression.
c. proactive interference.
d. method of savings.
Joy just learned to speak French, but she notices that sometimes when speaking Spanish to her friends French words come to mind. This is an example of
a. retroactive interference.
b. repression.
c. proactive interference.
d. method of savings.
Psychoanalysts believe that dissociative amnesia involves
a. retroactive interference.
b. repression.
c. proactive interference.
d. false memory syndrome.
Which of the following statements is true regarding repression?
a. The desire to avoid painful memories motivates repression.
b. Repression is an attempt to remove painful memories from conscious awareness.
c. The concept of heightened memory formation during times of increased stress due to hormone release contradicts the idea of repression.
d. All of the above.
Bill recently found out that as a child his dog, which he thought was lost, was actually stolen by some stranger. This example demonstrates
a. retroactive interference.
b. repression.
c. failure of consolidation.
d. none of the above.
False memory syndrome refers to
a. pseudomemories that can form because of suggestive questioning.
b. all repressed memories.
c. fantasy and dreams.
d. none of the above.
Which of the following is a physiological factor contributing to infantile amnesia?
a. The structure of the limbic system does not mature until the age of 10.
b. The hippocampus does not mature until about two years of age.
c. The myelination of brain pathways is incomplete for the first few years of life.
d. both b and c.
Jessica was upset because she was unable to remember her 4th birthday party, and everyone in her family was always talking about that day. A cognitive explanation for Jessica's memory loss might be
a. at four, Jessica was probably not interested in remembering her past.
b. her ability to encode sensory input was limited due to her language skills.
c. a or b.
d. none of the above.
Memory lapses for the period following a trauma such as a blow to the head are called
a. infantile amnesia.
b. anterograde amnesia.
c. retrograde amnesia.
d. traumagrade amnesia.
Bill was in an automobile accident. The events just prior to the accident are still a blur. Bill demonstrates _______________ amnesia.
a. infantile
b. anterograde
c. retrograde
d. traumagrade
One of the symptoms of anterograde amnesia is
a. a failure to recognize long-standing relatives.
b. a loss of long-term memories established prior to the injury.
c. a failure to establish memories after the injury, but a preservation of memories prior to the injury.
d. a failure to connect the appropriate emotion to the social situation.
The clinical effects of head trauma suggest that the transfer of information from short- to long-term memory may require
a. configuration.
b. drill and practice.
c. myelination of brain pathways.
d. a period of consolidation.
The text presents several methods to improve memory skills. Which of the following is not one of them?
a. Using rote maintenance rehearsal.
b. Relate new information to what you already know.
c. Avoid using familiar associations.
d. Use unusual, exaggerated associations.
Mnemonic devices can incorporate chunks of information into a format such as
a. acronyms.
b. jingles.
c. visual imagery.
d. all of the above.
In the Method of loci, the material to be learned is associated with
a. familiar images.
b. acronyms.
c. drill and practice.
d. unusual words.
_______________ are viewed as electrical circuits in the brain that correspond to memory traces.
a. Neutral networks
b. Engrams
c. Memory circuits
d. Encephalograms
Which of the following are thought to be involved in the biochemical process of memory?
a. Neurotransmitters
b. Hormones
c. A and b
d. None of the above
Low levels of _______________ are correlated with memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.
a. serotonin
b. acetylcholine
c. adrenaline
d. vasopressin
The structural changes in the brain that take place with the formation of new episodic memories most likely begin in the
a. cerebral cortex.
b. frontal lobe.
c. hippocampus.
d. thalamus.
What part of the memory system is the prefrontal cortex thought to play?
a. Executive center
b. Sensory switchboard
c. Storage bins
d. All of the above