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216 terms

2013_African History Bee Study Guide

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Marie Brown
Invented the home security system in 1966
Sarah Boone
An African American inventor who on April 26, 1892, obtained United States patent rights for her improvements to the ironing board.
John Burr
Invented , in 1899 patented an improved rotary blade for the lawn mower.
George Washington Carver
A black chemist and director of agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented over 300 uses for peanuts including lotions, soaps, and paints.
Lyda D. Newman
In 1898, the hairbrush
Phil Brooks
First U.S. Patent for a disposable syringe
Crosthwait, David, Jr.
Research engineer for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. He received some 40 U.S. patents relating to HVAC systems
Isaac R. Johnson
Invented the bicycle frame
Andrew Jackson
Steam driven rotary engine
George Crum, Inventor
The Potato Chip
Granville T. Woods, Inventor
Telephone transmitter, automatic air brake, and roller coaster
Dr. Henry T. Sampson
In 1971, he invented the gamma electric cell, which converts radiation directly into electricity.
Dr. Mark Dean
In 1980 he started working at IBM and was instrumental in the invention of the Personal Computer (PC). He holds three of IBM's original nine PC patents and currently holds more than 20 total patents.
Dr. Valerie L. Thomas
Inventor of the Illusion Transmitter, which creates three-dimensional projections.
James E. West
This inventor long with a colleague, developed the microphone (officially known as the Electroacoustic Transducer Electret Microphone) and they received a patent for it in 1962.
Joseph Lee
He invented the machine that makes bread (faster than six people could cheaply) and the machine that makes bread crumbs.
Lonnie G. Johnson
As a famous black inventor this scientist invented the Super Soaker squirt gun, released in 1989.
Dr. Charles Drew, Inventor
Blood Plasma. In 1944 this African-American physician, developed techniques for the storing and processing of blood for transfusion. His research on the preservation of blood and during WWII, helped developed blood-transfusion programs for the British and the French.
Garrett Augustus Morgan
Was an African-American inventor and businessman. He was the first person to patent a traffic signal. He also developed the gas mask (and many other inventions).
Gwendolyn Brooks
She was the first African American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for poetry, the year 1950.
Bill Cosby
In 1965 he was the first black to have a starring role in a continuing network television dramatic series.
Michael Jackson
He was the first celebrity to have two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Toni Morrison
The First African American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993.
Sydney Poitier
In 1964 he became the First African American to win an Oscar for a staring role for his performance in Lilies of the Field.
Phillis Wheatley
First known African-American woman to publish a book in 1773.
Thomas L. Jennings
Was the first African American to hold a patent: for a dry-cleaning process (In 1821)
Alexander Twilight
The first African American to receive a degree from an American college: Middlebury College (In 1823). Also the first to be elected into public office serving as a state legislature (in 1836).
Freedom's Journal
First African-American owned-and-operated newspaper (in 1827)
Henry Ossian Flipper
First African-American graduate of West Point and first African-American commissioned officer in the U.S. military (in 1877)
Moses Fleetwood Walker
First professional black baseball player (in 1884)
Sarah E. Goode
Becomes the first African-American women to get a patent - for a bed that folded into a cabinet (In 1885)
W.E.B. Du Bois
First African American to earn a doctorate degree (Ph.D.) from Harvard University (In 1895)
Mary Fields
First African-American woman to work for the United States Postal Service (In 1895)
Harry Lew
In 1902 he became the first African-American professional basketball player: (Played for the New England Professional Basketball League)
George Poage
First African American to win a medal in the Olympics - two bronze medals in track and field (1904)
Fritz Pollard
In 1916 he became the first African-American football player to play in a Rose Bowl game (he played for Brown University).
Mary McLeod Bethune
In 1938, she became the first African-American female federal agency head (National Youth Administration)
Hattie McDaniel
In 1940, she became the first African American to win an Academy Award (for Best Supporting Actress in Gone with the Wind)
Ralph Bunche
He was the first First African American to win Nobel Peace Prize, 1950
Althea Gibson
In 1950, she became the first African-American woman to compete on the world tennis tour
Princess Tiana
In 2009 she became the First African-American Disney Princess.
Ursula Burns
In 2009, she became the first African-American woman CEO of a Fortune 500 company the Xerox Corporation.
Annette Gordon-Reed
In 2009, she became the first African American to win the Pulitzer Prize for History (The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family)
Barack Obama, Politician
The 44th President of the United States and the First African American to be elected president of the U.S. in 2008. He was re-elected in 2012.
Michelle Obama
She became the first African-American First Lady of the United States in 2009.
Tyra Banks
She became the first African-American model to appear on the cover of Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Edition, in 1997.
Tiger Woods
In 1997, he became the first African American to win a men's major golf championship
Toni Morrison
In 1993 she became the first African American woman to win the Nobel Prize for literature, she wrote Beloved.
Dr. Mae Jemison
She is the first African-American woman astronaut. In 1992 she went into orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.
John Singleton
In 1991 he became the first African American nominated for a Best Director Academy Award for Boyz n the Hood
Guion Stewart "Guy" Bluford, Jr.
He is the first African-American astronaut he orbited on the Challenger mission STS-8, in 1983
Condoleezza Rice
She is the first African-American woman to be appointed as the Secretary of State in 2005.
Phylicia Rashād
She is the first African American to win Broadway theater's Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play, in 2004.
Halle Berry
In 2002 she became first African-American woman to win the Academy Award for Best Actress - for Monster's Ball, 2001.
Jackie Robinson
He was the first African American to break the color barrier in Major League Baseball, it was 1947.
Bessie Coleman
It was in 1921 when she became the first African-American woman to receive a pilot's license and the first to become a stunt pilot
Kamala Harris
In 2010, she became the first African-American attorney general of California.
Willie Lewis Brown, Jr.
In 1980 he became the first African-American speaker of the California State Assembly:
Frederick Madison Roberts
It was 1918 when he became the first African American elected to political office on the West Coast, California State Assembly
Tom Bradley
He became the first African American elected mayor of Los Angeles, California. The first to become mayor of a major Western city. He served from 1973 - 1993.
Desirée Rogers
2009 brought her to the White House as the first African-American White House Social Secretary.
Serena Williams
In 2003 she became the first African American to win a Career Grand Slam in tennis.
Duke Ellington
In 2009 he became the first African American to appear by himself on a circulating U.S. coin.
Colin Powell, Military and Politician
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He led US Forces during the first Gulf War. In 2001 he became the first African-American Secretary of State.
Dr. Ralph Bunche
Diplomat
He was the first non black to win the Noble Peace Prize for his work in mediating the Arab Israeli conflict in the 1940's, He helped form the United Nations.
Frederick Douglas
Statesman
He was a self-educated slave who escaped in 1838 and became a leading figure in anti-slavery. He was well known as an abolitionist speaker. First African-American nominee for Vice President of the United States: by the Equal Rights Party (In 1872). He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
Lewis Latimer
Inventor
African-American inventor who played a key role in improving practical electrical lighting
Muhammad Ali
Boxer: United States prizefighter who won the world heavyweight championship three times (born in 1942)
Arthur Ashe
Tennis Player: United States tennis player who was the first Black to win United States and English singles championships (1943-1993)
Michael Jordon
Basketball player, considered to be the greatest to ever play the game. He is one of the most marketed sports figures
Jack Johnson
Boxer: First African American boxer to win the World Heavyweight title (1908), represented idea of the "New Negro" in early-1900s American culture. He was the most famous black of his time.
Tiger Woods
Golfer: Who was the first Black golfer to win the Masters Golf Tournament, one of the greatest golfers of all time and one of the highest paid professional athletes.
Willie Mays
Baseball Player: Black baseball hall-of-famer, played for New York Mets from 1950s to 1972. The "Say Hey Kid". He won two Most Valuable Player Awards and hit 660 home runs. He was considered the greatest all-around player of all time.
Jesse Owens
Track and Field: United States athlete and Black American who won four gold medals at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin shredding Nazi Germany's image of Aryan racial superiority.
Bill Russell
Basketball Player and Coach: A basketball superstar who became the first African American to manage a major league sports team. During his playing career he won five Most Valuable Player Awards and 11 Championships with the Boston Celtics.
Joe Louis
Boxer:
One of the greatest boxers in history, the Brown Bomber became a national Hero he burst onto the professional boxing scene in 1934. Known to many as the "Brown Bomber," he emerged victorious from his first 27 fights, all but four of which he won in knockouts.
Jim Brown
Football Player: He led the NFL in rushing in eight of his nine seasons and scored 126 touchdowns. Widely considered the greatest pro-football player ever.
Hank Aaron
Baseball Player: He was a professional baseball player who broke Babe Ruth's home run record in 1974. He is a Hall of Famer who won baseball's Most Valuable Player Award in 1957.
Wilma Rudolph
Track and Field: Is a famous African American Track & Field star & first female to win three gold medals in a single Olympic game. She was known as the fastest woman on Earth.
Jackie Robinson
Baseball Player: He broke the Major League Baseball color barrier in 1947, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.
Richard Pryor
His trailblazing comedic style earned him two Emmy Awards, the American Academy of Humor Award, several gold and platinum comedy albums and five Grammy Awards. He was one of the most influential American comedians.
Whoopi Goldberg
Black female comedian, actress, and talk show host: She has one an Academy Award, An Emmy, A Grammy, and a Tony Award
Booker T. Washington
Educator & Leader
He emphasized education and family values as means for blacks to succeed. The national spokesperson for the African American cause at the turn of the 20th Century.
Percy Lavon Julian
Scientist
He was the first African American chemist inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. He was a pioneer in the medicinal drug industry.
Russell Simmons
Businessman
Co founder of the iconic Def Jam Brand. He was the driving force in the establishment of Hip Hop music and culture for mainstream.
Toni Morrison, Author and Professor
She was the first African American women to win a Nobel prize in literature. She is a celebrated novelist won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction.
Berry Gordy, Jr.
Businessman
He was an African American songwriter who formed the hugely popular record company Motown in the 1960's. This company played an important role in the racial integration of popular music.
Maya Angelou, Novelist, Poet, and Activist
In 1942 she became the first black San Francisco Streetcar Conductor. Civil rights activist, lecturer, and author wrote an autobiography, "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings". She has also written poetry and scripts for films and has acted in movies. On January 20, 1993, she read her poem, "On the Pulse of Morning" at William "Bill" Jefferson Clinton's 1993 Presidential Inauguration.
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
Military General
He was the first African American General in the US Air Force & the commander of the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II
Madam C. J. Walker
Businesswoman
In 1910 she became the first woman and the first African American millionaire, developing a line of hair and beauty products for women in the early part of the 20th century.
Langston Hughes, Poet, Author, & Playwright
He played a major role in the Harlem Renaissance, as an author of poems, plays, and essays juvenile fiction and biographies. He was called "Poet Laureate of Black America" and wrote the Weary Blues, Dream Deferred and the Negro Speaks of Rivers.
Charles Houston
Lawyer
Known as the man who abolished Jim Crow,he was involved in every major supreme court case involving desegregation including Brown vs. Brown
George Washington Carver
Scientist & Inventor
Revolutionized agriculture in the south through development of alternative crops to cotton. He also developed and promoted about 100 products made from peanuts that were useful for the house and farm.
Bob Johnson
Founder of BET. He was the first black majority owner of a pro sports team- the Charlotte Bobcats. He became the first African American billionaire in 2001.
Oprah Winfrey
Actress and Businesswoman
She created the highest rated talk show in television history. She is the richest African American & one of the most influential women in the world.
W. E. B. Du Bois
He was a Civil Rights Leader and one of the founders of the NAACP. In 1895 he was the first African-American to receive Ph.D. from Harvard.
Nat King Cole
Entertainer & Singer
1919-1965 The first African American to host a Variety Show. He was a pianist whose blended swing blues and pop ballads crossed over to white pop charts.
Aretha Franklin
Singer
A famous female African American singer, songwriter, and pianist. She has won 18 and has two honorary Grammy Awards. She is one of the greatest singers of all time and is referred to as The Queen of Soul
Alice Walker
Author
She is the author of the novel, The Color Purple, she won on the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.
Carter G. Woodson
Historian & Writer
He earned a Ph.D. at Harvard. In 1915 he founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. He established the Journal of Negro History and the Negro History Bulletin. He is the Father of Negro History Week now known as Black History Month
Shirley Chisholm
1st African American woman elected to Congress (NY) and later made a bid for the Democratic nomination in the 1972 presidential campaign
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the Montgomery Boycott and national civil rights movement
Thurgood Marshall
Lawyer and Supreme Court Justice
The first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education
Harriet Tubman
Abolitionist
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Malcolm X
Minister & Civil Rights Leader
A controversial leader of the Nation of Islam, he argued that African Americans should work for social and political independence even if this included using violence as a means toward equity.
Mary McLead Bethune, Educator & Civil Rights Leader
In 1938, she became the first African American female federal agency head. She served as Director of Negro Affairs in National Youth Administration. She mentored a whole generation of black leaders and was an adviser to Elenore and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Minister & Civil Rights Leader
He was an African American Baptist Minister and Civil Rights Leader. He was a noted orator who opposed discrimination. He organized massive demonstrations of peaceful and nonviolent resistance. He was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee in 1968.
Bill Cosby
Entertainer
A comedian, actor, and producer. He is best known for his stand-up routines, including "Fat Albert," which later became an animated cartoon, and for his ground-breaking television series I Spy and The Cosby Show, which shaped the television image of the black family
Will Smith
Entertainer
This "Getting Jiggy With It" rapper has become a successful actor with eight straight #1 films at the box office including Men in Black. The Fresh Prince has a total of Four Grammy Awards.
Chuck Berry
Musician and Songwriter
An African-American rock 'n' roll musician and composer, who influenced many musicians of the 1950s and 1960s.
Quincy Jones
Musician and Composer
He is the most Grammy-nominated artist in the history of the awards with 79 nominations and 26 awards. He was the first African American musical director for the Academy Awards.
Miles Davis
He was a black jazz musician in the 1940's and 50's he was on the forefront of modern jazz and invented bebop. He aspired to challenge authority and encouraged people to stand up for civil rights.
Jessye Norman
Singer
In 1969 this opera singer who made her debut and has since sung in a variety of opera houses around the world.
Edward "Duke" Ellington
Bandleader, composer, pianist
As a jazz pianist and composer, he led his ten-piece orchestra at the cotton club. Known for the popular classic, "Take the 'A' Train."
Ida B. Wells Barnett. Editor/Anti-Lynching Crusader
Journalist and anti-lynching crusader who used the press to expose the harsh injustices faced by African Americans. And investigative reporter; she published The Red Record and was editor of the "Memphis Free Speech."
Dorothy Heights, National Council of Negro Women Chairperson
President Emeritus of National Council of Negro Women. The godmother of the women's movement. One of the "Big Six" in the 1960's Civil Rights Movement.
Tom Joyner
Talk Show Host:
He is the host of a nationally syndicated radio show and was inducted into the International Civil Rights Walk of Fame at the Martin Luther King National Historic Site in January 12, 2008
Alvin Ailey, Dancer Choreographer
In 1965, he took his group on one of the most successful European tours ever made by an American Dance company. He was awarded the NAACP Spingarn Medal in 1976
Gwendolyn Brooks, Poet
First African American woman to win a Pulitzer Prize. She was named consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 1985.
Jim Crow
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government.
Desegregation
To abolish or eliminate segregation so places like schools or workplace become open to members of all races or ethnic groups.
Supreme Court
The highest federal court in the United States; it has the final appellate jurisdiction and has jurisdiction over all other courts in the nation
Brown vs. the Board of Education
1954- Stated the the segregation of public schools is unconstitutional and ordered that all states must eventually desegregate the schools
Case over-turned Plessy vs. Ferguson (separate but equal)
Educator
One who provides information
Leader
A person who guides or inspires others
Scientist
A person with advanced knowledge of the sciences. That studies or practices any of the sciences or who uses scientific methods
Businessperson
A man engaged in business or who transact business. One who engages in industrial commercial enterprise.
Writer
A person who writes, especially as an occupation. This includes books, stories, screenplays, poems, or articles
Activist
Someone who takes direct action to achieve a political goal.
Author
One who writes books, stories, screenplays, poems, or articles
Military General
A commissioned rank in the U.S. Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps that is above lieutenant general.
Poet
A writer of poems
Playwright
An author of a play
Lawyer
One whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance and to provide representation in court or in other legal matters.
Black Entertainment Television
BET is part of BET Networks, it is the most prominent television network targeting young Black-American audiences and is the leading provider of Black-American cultural and entertainment-based programming
Inventor
This is a person who creates or discovers a new method, form, other useful means, or device
Agriculture
The practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Pioneer
Someone who helps to open up a new line of research, technology, or idea
National Academy of Sciences
An honorary American society of scientists created by President Lincoln during the American Civil War
Academy Award (Oscar)
An annual award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for achievements in motion picture production and performance
Grammy Award
It is the recognition for outstanding achievements in the music industry.
Tony Award
This award recognizes outstanding achievement in live Broadway theater.
Emmy Award
This award is for outstanding achievement in television
Nobel Prize
An annual award for outstanding contributions to physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and for work in peace. Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been honoring men and women from all corners of the globe for outstanding achievements in these areas. The foundations for the prize were laid in 1895 when Alfred Nobel wrote his last will, leaving much of his wealth to the establishment of the Nobel Prize.
Motown Records
A record company; it played an important role of the integration of African American music into popular music
Medicinal Drug Industry
Plants and other substances grown that have a therapeutic value for the body
Def Jam
Co-founded in 1984 by the hip hop promoter Russell Simons and the musician-produced Rick Rubin. During the 1980s, It cross-promoted a new generation of artists, expanding and diversifying the national audience for hip hop, and in 1986 became the first rap oriented independent label to sing a distribution deal with one of the "Big Five" record companies, Columbia Records.
Pulitzer Prize
The prestigious award given annually for excellence in American journalism, literature, and music.
President of the United States
The leader of executive branch of government and the nation's head of state. This office is elected every 4 years and promises to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution. Also the leader of the United States military.
Secretary of State
The head of the Department of State and traditionally a key adviser to the president on foreign policy
Supreme Court Justice
Member of the Supreme Court, part of the judicial branch of government.
Judicial Branch of Government
Branch of the government that makes sure the laws follow the Constitution. It interprets the law.
Executive Branch of Government
The president and his advisors, the branch of government charged with the execution and enforcement of laws and policies and the administration of public affairs.
Legislative Branch of Government
The branch of government having the power to make laws. It is composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. Another name for this branch is called Congress.
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and cooperation
Father of Black History
Carter Woodson
Historian
A scholar who studies and writes about the historical past
Montgomery Boycott
A protest from 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in the public transit system in Montgomery, Alabama.
The Supreme Court
Is the nation's highest court, it is the Judicial Branch of Government.
Abolitionist
A person who is against slavery and who wants to abolish it.
Statesman
A man who is a respected leader in national or international affairs
Minister
A person authorized to conduct religious worship, clergy, Pastor.
Entertainer
A person who entertains; a professional singer, comedian, dancer, or reciter.
Actor/Actress
One that acts: one who represents a character in a dramatic production or a theatrical performer
Songwriter
A composer of words or music for popular songs
Musician
An artist who composes or conducts music as a profession
Singer
A person who sings
Composer
Someone who composes music as a profession
Variety Show
A show consisting of a series of short unrelated performances
Black History Month
Was established to celebrate the contributions African Americans have made in history.
Sarah Boone, Inventor
Ironing Board
Maurice W. Lee, Inventor
Pressure Cooker
John L. Love, Inventor
Pencil Sharpener
Tom Marshall, Inventor
Fire Extinguisher
Jan Malzeliger, Inventor
Shoe Lasting Machine
Elijah McCoy, Inventor
Steam Engine Lubricators
Andrew Jackson Beard
Steam driven rotary engine
Norbert Rillieux, Inventor
Sugar Refinement
Henry Sampson, Inventor
Cellular Phone
Frederick M. Jones, Inventor
Air Conditioning Unit, Refrigeration Controls Defroster
Paul E. Williams, Inventor
Helicopter
Lonnie Johnson, Inventor
Super Soaker
Henry Blair, Inventor
Corn Planter
Lewis Latimer, Inventor
Incandescent Light Bulb
Sarah Goode, Inventor
Folding Cabinet Bed
August Wilson, Playwright Conductor
Two time Pulitzer Prize winning playwright of the modern American theater. Some of his best best work was featured at the Pasadena Playhouse.
Denzel Washington
He won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Glory (1989) and in 2002 a Best Actor Academy Award for Training Day (2001). He also starred in Remember the Titans, Antwone Fisher, and Man on Fire.
Stevie Wonder, Pianist, Composer
He played a key role in the campaign to honor Dr. Martin Luther King's birthday as a nation holiday. He is a popular entertainer, singer, and songwriter. He began recording at the age of 10 and has 15 gold and platinum records.
Phyllis E. Currie, Business/General Manager
General Manager of Pasadena Water and Power since 2001 providing electricity and water to the City of Pasadena and portions of Altadena. Chief Financial Officer for the LA Department of Water and Power from 1992 to 1999.
Emeritus
Retired from active service but retained to an honorary position.
"The Big Six"
Activists, including King, who held prominent positions during the civil rights movement.
Earl Graves, Publisher and Media Executive
He is the publisher of Black Enterprise magazine. He was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 2007.
Earvin "Magic" Johnson, Entrepreneur
This basketball player was the MVP of the NBA in 1987, 1989, and 1990. He is a minority owner in professional sports teams. He is the CEO of a company worth $700 million which includes a promotional nation wide chain of movie theaters, restaurants, coffee shops, and a movie studio.
John H. Johnson
Former CEO of the Johnson Publishing Co., which is the most prosperous and powerful black publishing company in the United States. He started Ebony, Jet, and EM magazines. He was awarded the Spingarn Medal for his contributions to Black America through imagination in publishing.
Spingarn Medal
Is awarded to "African American who perform acts of distinguished merit and achievement". It was created by the President of the NAACP in 1914.
Paula Madison, Former Executive VP, NBC Universal
She was the first African American woman toe become general manager at a network owned station at a top five market. When appointed in 2007 as chief diversity officer it was the first time in the history of NBC Universal that a senior executive has had diversity as his or her sole responsibility.
Randall Robinson
He is a lawyer and the former Executive Director of Tran Africa. in 1900 he played an important role in securing the release of Nelson Mandela and also in the passage of the Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986.
Medger W. Evers, Civil Rights Leader
He organized voter registration drives, demonstrations, and boycotts. He was posthumously awarded the Spingarn Medal in 1963. Outrage over his assassination helped to pass the Civil Right Act of 1964.
A. Phillip Randolph, Founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and A. Phillip Randolph Institute
Organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters" to helped African Americans railway car attendants working for the Pullman Palace Car Company. in 1964, he founded the A. Phillip Randolph Institute in New York City to eradicate discrimination and to defend human civil rights.
Booker T. Washington, Politics
He was the founder of the Tuskegee Institute and helped develop the Negro Business League. He wrote Up From Slavery.
Dr. James Rossner, University President
He has served a the 6th President of California State University, Los Angeles for more than 30 years. He holds the rank of professor of health care management and professor of microbiology at the University.
George McKenna, Former Principal of George Washington Preparatory High School and PUSD Assistant Superintendent
His reform tactics tuned George Washington Preparatory High School in Los Angeles, from a failing institution to one where nearly 80% of it graduates went on to collage. His work led to his being the subject of the award-winning CBS Movie, The George McKenna Story, starring Denzel Washington.
Federick D. Patterson, UNited Negro College Fund Founder (1901 - 1988)
He was the director of the school of agriculture and later president of Tuskegee Institute. In 1944, he organized the United Negro College Fund, a cooperative fund-raising organization, to provide financial assistance to predominately black colleges and universities.
Freedom Ride
One of many activities in which people from many backgrounds rode buses throughout the South to test the integration of interstate buses and terminals
Picket
To walk or stand together with signs to protest
Unconstitutional
In violation of the Constitution
Oppression
Unjust or cruel exercise of power or authority
Discrimination
Showing an unfair difference in treatment
Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc.
A set of buildings begun by the King Family and by friends of Dr. King, where people study about Dr. King by using pictures, models, and various presentations
Ethnic Group
A group of people with common background.
Debate
Discuss by considering different points of view.
Act
Law
Bill
Suggested law
Assassinate
To kill a well known leader
Federal
A system of government in which the national and state governments share power
Congress
The legislative body of government who make our laws, the legislature of the United States government