8 terms

Bio Ch. 13.3 vocab.

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deletion
-in gene mutation, when one base is removed during replication
-called a frameshift mutation because reading frame shifts; every codon after mutation is changed
-in chromosomal mutation it is a loss of all or part of chromosome
frameshift mutation
-every codon after mutation is changed
-called frameshift mutations because reading frame shifts;
insertion
-one base is inserted
mutagen
-a chemical or physical agents in the environment that can cause mutation
-CHEMICAL: include pesticides, natural plant alkaloids, tobacco smoke, pollutant
-PHYSICAL: electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays and ultraviolet light
-some mess up base-pairing, increasing error rate
-some can weaken DNA strand causing breaks and inversions
mutation
-heritable changes in genetic information of a cell
-can be gene or chromosomal
point mutation
-gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
-involve change in one or few nucleotides
-can be substitutions, insertions and deletions which occur during replication
polyploidy
-condition in which organism has extra sets of chromosomes
substitution
-gene mutation in which one base changed to different base in