8 terms

Bio 13.4 Vocab

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differentiation
• process in which cells become specialized in structure and function;
• cells develop different forms adapted to specific functions
homeobox gene
• 180-base DNA sequence that codes for transcription factors that control differentiation and development
• genes that code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell development and differentiation
homeotic gene
• master control genes that regulate the development of organs in specific areas of the body (=body plan)
• mutations in these genes can transform one body part into another
• a master control gene that determines the identity of a body structure of a developing organism
Hox gene
• homeobox genes in flies that identify each segment of a body from head to tail
• related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the anterior-posterior (head-tail) axis
operator
• DNA regulatory region that prevents transcription when a repressor protein is bound to it
• in prokaryotes, where a DNA-binding protein known as the lac repressor can bind to DNA
operon
a group of genes that are regulated together and usually have related functions
RNA (interference RNAi)
• phenomenon of inhibition of gene expression by RNA molecules
• blocking gene expression occurs by means of an miRNA silencing complex
• interfering RNA molecules fold into double-stranded hairpin loops and are cut into miRNA by "dicer" enzyme and 2 loops separate
• introduction of double-stranded RNA into a cell inhibits gene expression;
transcription factor
• control the expression of genes by binding DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of eukaryotic genes
• a regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes
• some enhance by opening up tightly packed chromatin; others help attract RNA polymerase; others black access to certain genes
• multiple must bind before RNA polymerase is able to attach to promoter region to start transcription