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Bio Chapter 5
Terms in this set (44)
What are the two main stages of the cell cycle?
Interphase and cell division
What stage is the cell in when it does what it normally does?
What stage does the cell stay in for 90% of it's life?
What is the last stage of the cell's life?
What happens during cell division?
The DNA is duplicated, and then it is divided into daughter cells.
What phases are there during cell division?
G1, S phase, and G2 phase
What is G1 phase?
This is for gap 1 which is the first phase in a newly divided cell (usually the longest phase). During this phase the cell has grown and is ready to replicate its DNA.
What is S phase?
This is for synthesis. This is during time in which DNA is replicated. Cell now has twice as much DNA as normal.
What is G2 phase?
This is for gap 2 which is after S phase, but before cell division. Checks are made to ensure that conditions are suitable for cell division.
What is G0 phase?
This is the nonreplicating phase. Some specialized cells enter the G0 phase and do not replicate. This phase can last from a few days to the rest of the cell's life. Neurons and beta cells are examples.
What are the two reasons as to why cells divide?
To reproduce the organism, and to grow and repair cells of a multicellular organism.
What is Binary Fission?
This occurs in prokaryotic cells, and some single-cell protist eukaryotes. This process begins with a single cell and ends with two identical daughter cells.
Why is eukaryotic cell division more complex than prokaryotic cells?
B/c there are cell organelles and usually many cells. There is more DNA and many linear chromosomes, instead of only one circular chromosome, and the DNA is wrapped in a double layer of nuclear membrane.
What are the two types of eukaryotic cell division?
Mitosis and Meiosis
What is mitosis?
It is asexual and somewhat resembling prokaryotic binary fission. It produces two identical daughter cells.
What is meiosis?
It produces sperm and eggs that have half as much DNA as the mother cell. It is completed by fertilization to create a new organism. Cell division used in sexual reproduction to produce sperm and eggs. It occurs in gametes rather than somatic cells.
What are the four main phases of DNA processes for mitosis?
Interphase-before mitosis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Remember the acronym IPMAT.
What is cytokinesis?
It is the division of the rest of the cell. After replicated DNA has been divided with half going to each daughter cell, the cytoplasm and cell organelles are divided.
DNA replication occurs during which phase?
When are chromosomes formed?
When the DNA wraps around proteins.
What are chromatids?
Chromosomes (with the proteins)
Replicating DNA now consists of two identical what?
What are the sister chromatids held together by?
A centromere protein.
What do all multicellular organisms use to repair and replace worn out cells?
What do some small and/or less complex eukaryotic organisms use to reproduce themselves asexually?
Mitosis. For example, seaweeds, fungi, sponges, and flatworms.
What is cancer?
Uncontrolled cell division.
What do cells dividing out of control produce?
Tumors (cancer), malformation of organs that usually malfunction, and the decision of when to divide and reproduce occurs during G1 phase.
What do cell cycle regulatory proteins do?
They control cell division.
When does the cell cycle pause?
When the cell size or nutrient supply is inadequate, DNA is damaged, or DNA replication is incomplete.
What is a tumor?
A cell mass created by rapid runaway cell division.
When do tumor cells transform into cancer cells? (Also known as malignant cells)
When tumor cells gain anchorage independence and start invading other tissues
When is a tumor considered benign?
When it remains confined to one site.
What is Angiogenesis?
The formation of new blood vessels.
What is Anchorage dependence?
Most cells are firmly anchored in one place and will stop dividing if they are detached from their surroundings.
What is metastasis?
The spread of a disease from one organ to another.
What do regulatory proteins do during the G1 phase?
They advance cells to the S phase to begin replication.
What can regulatory proteins be influenced by?
Internal (within the cell) or external signals, nutrient supply, or DNA damage.
What interferes with the G0/G1 checkpoint proteins?
What are gametes?
Haploid sex cells (sperm or eggs) having half as much DNA as parent cell.
What are somatic cells
Diploid cells identical and having as much DNA as parent cells.
What kind of cell does meiosis create?
Creates haploid cells that carry half as much DNA as is needed in complete cells.
What is fertilization?
Fusion of two gametes resulting in a Zygote. The zygote now undergoes mitosis to form the new complete organism.
What is a Zygote?
The single cell result of fertilization that now contains all the DNA necessary.
What does the first cell division separate?
Separates homologous pairs into two different daughter cells. The cells are now haploid b/c the homologous pairs have been separated, but the sister chromatids (identical chromosomes) remain.
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