learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses.
modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response (UCR)
an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus.
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditoned stimulus with the conditions response.
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is ever paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus.
conditioned emotional response (CER)
emotional response that has become classicallly conditoned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.
clssical conditoning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the response of another person.
condtioned taste aversion
development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.
referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning.
origianl theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditoning occurred because the conditoned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditoned stimulus by being paired closely together.
law of effect
law stating that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.
Edward L. Thorndike
was one of the first researchers to explore and attempt to outline the las of learning voluntary responses.
any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.
any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch.
any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired witha primary reinforcer, such as praise , tokens, or gold stars.
the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.