Upgrade to remove ads
PSY 318 Exam 1 Essay Questions
Terms in this set (15)
How do sensation & perception differ?
- sensation transforms the image on the retina and perception transforms light energy into electrical energy
- perception leads to action
- sensation is taking formation from the world, perception makes sense of it
Compare and contrast data-driven processing versus
knowledge driven processing. Provide an example of
- data based processing is based on stimuli reaching receptors. It provides a starting point for perception because without receptor activation, there is no reception
- ex: woman sees moth on tree, because of moth's image on retina
- knowledge based processing is processing that is based on knowledge -- what you have previously learned about an object
- ex: woman knows she is seeing a moth because she is accessing what she has learned about moths
Describe how using the method of constant stimuli is
different than using the method of limits for finding
- The method of constant stimuli presents different intensities at random order. The threshold is defined as the intensity that is detected 50% of the trials -- the intensity that light is seen on half of it presentations
- The method of limits presents stimuli in ascending descending order. When the participant goes from being able to hear a tone from not hearing it, that is the crossover point. the threshold is taken as the mean of multiple scores at the crossover point
An evil doctor creates a machine that removes the
cones from a person's eyes, but not the rods.
Describe three differences a person who is attacked
by this machine has from a normally-sighted person
-rods work in low light situations and their primary function is to show brightness
-cones give information on color and sense of detail
It's been said that a neuron's firing can be compared
to a toilet flushing. Explain three similarities.
1. refractory period
2. propagated response: all or nothing -- travels down axon without decreasing
3. absolute threshold
Describe an experiment that uses preferential
looking. What can be determined from such an experiment?
we can determine preferential looking (infant visual acuity) by determining narrowest stripe width that results in looking more at lined/grated stimulus
Your friend Fred claims he has no neurons that
receive lateral inhibition. If this was true, what
issues would Fred have?
- He cannot tell where edges are because receptive fields overlap
- sees different colors/amounts of light reflected off of objects (simultaneous contrast), because rods show more lateral inhibition
What is the function of the LGN with respect to
the LGN (thalamus) is a group of neurons in the optic nerve where signals are sent after entering the eye
- relay center between optic nerve and cortex
- organizes information from both eyes as it flows from retina to cortex and receives signals from the cortex and the retina, but mostly from the cortex
- 90% of all neurons enter thalamus from optic nerve
- organized in layers
- has three types of ganglion cells: parvocellular (detail/local image, cones), magnocellular (overall shape of an object/global image, rods), konicocellular
How is the occipital lobe wired for edge
detection, and why is it so important?
has feature detectors (simple cells, complex cells, end stop cells) which respond to a specific features of a stimulus
it is important because feature detectors detect change in intensity of light, movement of light, and length and interception of light - activate excitatory cells
What's the difference between the "easy" and
"hard" version of the mind-body problem?
The easy problem involves looking for connections between physiological responding and experiences.
The hard problem involves determining how physiological processes (like ions flowing across the nerve membrane and nerve impulses that result from this flow) cause us to have experiences.
Describe the organization of cells in area V1 (striate/cerebral cortex / occipital lobe). What is a hypercolumn?
-retinotopic organization: locations on the cortex correspond to locations on the retina; two points that are close together on an object on the retina will activate neurons that are close together in the brain
-cortical magnification: the small area of the fovea is represented by a large area on the visual cortex (small parts on the fovea, which is in the retina, gets magnified)
-hypercolumn: a location column with a full array of orientation columns, serves one small location on the retina and contains neurons that respond to all possible orientations
After the occipital lobe processes the visual
information, there are two main streams of
information. Describe where those streams go and
what type of information they process.
-ventral pathway (what): the pathway that reaches the temporal lobe is responsible for determining on object's identity (object discrimination), detects color
-dorsal pathway (where): the pathway that reaches the parietal lobe is responsible for determining an object's location, detects movement and landmarks
An evil doctor has implanted an earwig into my
brain that has destroyed my FFA. What sort of deficits
might I expect?
- inability to identify objects and shapes of faces
- if temporal lobe is damaged, will not be able to recognize faces of familiar people like family and friends
three major sites of visual pathway
the retina through the optic nerve, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual receiving area (occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex aka V1)
three types of cells in the occipital lobe (aka feature detectors)
- simple cells: detects change in color intensity and responds to small spots of light
- complex cells: detect movement of light
- end stop cells: fire to movement of a specific length
they fire in response to specific features of a stimulus = feature detectors
movement, overlapping and length of cells activate excitatory cells
Sets with similar terms
PSB3340 - Ch10
AP psychology Unit 4
Other sets by this creator