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Lochner v. New York

overturns new york law setting 8 hr maximum working hours for bakery workers- 1905

Oliver Wendell Holmes

United States writer of humorous essays (1809-1894)

William James, Pragmatism

He was a philosopher who wrote about a concept known as the 'second,' which emphasized the practical side of thinking. Truth came from everyday experienced and observation.

John Dewey

United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952)

Henry George, Progress and Poverty

Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.

Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward

rivaling Henry George, he wrote Looking Backward, a utopian novel, published in 1888, it described the experiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awoke in 2000, finding a new social order in which want, politics and vice were unknown. The society had emerged through peace and evolution, and all of the trusts of the 1800\u2019s joined together form one government controlled trust, which distributed the abundance of the industrial economy equally among all people. \u201cFraternal cooperation\u201d replaced competition, there were no class divisions, and there was great nationalism.


a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

Eugene V. Debs

he organized the American railway union, became disillusioned with capitalism and became a spokes man for the socialist party of America and was candidate for president 5 times

Ida B. Tarbell

Muckraker who wrote History of the Standard Oil Co.


Refers to one of the magazine journalist who exposed the corrupt side of business and public life in the early 1900s. (Example: Ida Tarbell who wrote about standard oil companies cutthroat methods of eliminating competition.)

Danbury Hatters' Case

In 1908 the supreme court limited unions\u2019 right to set up boycotts in support of strikes.

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