APWH Period 5: Revolutions (1750-1900)
Terms in this set (53)
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe. They believed they could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior.
Enlightenment philosophe most responsible for the idea of social science as a way of improving humanity.
Enlightenment philosophe who argued that people have natural rights - and those rights must be defended if necessary.
Enlightenment philosophe who suggested a separation of powers.
Enlightenment philosophe who believed in the concept of a social contract.
Enlightenment philosophe who argued that women should have the same rights as men, especially intellectually.
Economic theorist who argued that the wealth of nations should be measured by their capacity to produce/create. Suggested the "invisible hand."
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Enlightenment-era musician who wrote for popular audiences - not just patrons.
Enlightenment philosophe who championed true freedom of religion.
Enlightenment philosophe best known for publicly advocating for atheism.
The founder of Methodism. Believed people should have a personal experience with God.
Declaration of Independence
A document that represented Enlightenment ideals, particularly John Locke's ideal of natural rights.
Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Ultimately turned against those principles in the Reign of Terror.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Enlightenment document of the French Revolution. Argued for the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
Reign of Terror
Led by Maximillien Robespierre, the period in the French Revolution when anyone suspected of disloyalty was executed, primarily by guillotine.
Military overthrow of the government.
Granted Enlightenment rights to most Europeans for the first time.
Political philosophy that advocates the preservation of existing (or historic) values and institutions.
Concert of Europe
Conservative international institution of the mid-1800s. An agreement between nations intended to preserve political power and prevent another Napoleon.
The only fully successful slave rebellion in world history, this uprising was inspired by the American and French Revolutions.
Ultimately led to the creation of an independent island nation in the Caribbean.
South American revolutionary leader, who helped organize revolutions in many countries but was unsuccessful in fulfilling his dream of a unified South American nation.
Revolutionary document of Latin America - written by Simon Bolivar. In this document, Bolivar explained the need for a Latin American revolution in Enlightenment terms.
Priest who began the fight for Mexican independence from Spain. He used syncretic symbols to rally the people.
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers (result of industrialization).
Industrial Working Class
The lowest class of people in most post-industrial nations. These are the people who worked the longest hours in dangerous conditions for little pay.
Economic system based on the principles of a market economy. Competition between businesses results in innovation and low prices. Remember Adam Smith's invisible hand.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in cities.
When a group of workers bands together to force management/owners to make changes. Their primary tool is a strike.
Idea that government ought to avoid interfering in personal decisions, particularly business/economic decisions.
Idea that economic cooperation is better than competition.
An economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
Chinese Exclusion Acts
Anti-immigrant laws passed by the U.S. in the mid- to late-1800s. No more Chinese people were allowed in the U.S.; those who returned to China for a visit would not be allowed reentry.
Neighborhoods where people from similar cultures live together and assert cultural distinction from the dominant group.
Late 19th century idea that involved embracing one's emotions and an admiration of the past.
Education that is paid for by the public at large.
universal male suffrage
The idea that every male should be able to vote, regardless of income or education level.
Leader of the British suffragette movement; helped women win the right to vote.
A territorial and political division that contains a body of people of one or more nationalities. Usually characterized by relatively large size and relative independence from other groups.
The mother of the emperor or king. Holds a great deal of informal political power.
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import recreational drugs.
The results of the Opium Wars, where Europe took massive concessions from Asian nations (particularly China).
In response to the Unequal Treaties; China's failed attempts to rapidly industrialize.
1899 Chinese rebellion against foreigners. Led to the deaths of many foreigners in China before it was defeated.
When the Tokugawa Shogunate was defeated and the Japanese emperor was given power in the late 1800s.
When the newly-powerful Japanese emperor rapidly industrialized Japan.
Second Industrial Revolution
This event began the widespread utilization of petroleum and electrical power, with steel as the building material of choice.
An oily, dark-colored, flammable liquid found in the earth, consisting mainly of a mixture of various hydrocarbons. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, paraffin, and lubricants are made from this. Used to power the Second Industrial Revolution.
A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It allowed instant communication across distances.
Late 19th century European idea that white Europeans were intellectually and morally superior to their darker-skinned counterparts.
White Man's Burden
Late 19th century European idea that it is the duty of the "civilised" white man to bring culture and understanding to the "savage" people of color.
A great example of a late 19th century nation-based empire. This empire prided itself on its expansive power, military capacity, and trading network.
Scramble for Africa
Following the Berlin Conference, when the nations of Europe seized control of territories in Africa.
Missionary to Africa who used photography to prove Belgium's abusive rubber-gathering practices in the Congo.