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179 terms

social studies

FSOT
STUDY
PLAY
physical features
are the natural characteristics of the earths surface
human settlements
refer to the communities founded and developed by people such as villages, towns ect.
The Legend
is the part of the map where you will find the explanation to the meaning of symbols and pictures on a map.
A Compass Rose
is the symbol on a map which shows the directions of N.S.E.W.
Cardinal Directions
are the four main points of a compass.
Intermiediate directions
are the points of a compass that fall between the four cardinal directions.
A Globe
is a round model of the Earth.
A Hemisphere
is one half of a globe.
The Equator
is an imaginary line around the middle of the earth.
Latitude
is the distance North or South of the Equator.
Lines of Latitude
measure the distance North or South of the Equator.
Low Latitudes
is an area between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator.
Middle Latitudes
are the areas that lie primarily between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.
High Latitudes
are located between 60 and 90 degrees in both hemispheres.
Seasons
are the periods of the year that are distinguished by special climate conditions.
Rotation
refers to the spinning of a body such as the Earth, about it's axis.
Revolution
refers to the motion of Earht around the sun.
Prime Meridian
is an imaginary line running from the North Pole to South Pole.
The International Dateline
is an imaginary line of longitude generally 180 degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian.
Longitude
is the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.
Lines of Longitude
measure the distance east or west of the Prime Meridain.
Place
referes to a collection of features that distinguish it from other places.
Location
refers to a particular place on Earth.
Relative location
is the position of a place in relation to another place.
Exact location
tells you exactly where a place is.
Coordinates
refer to the system of latitude and longitude to locate places on Earth.
Connection
refers to a relation between things or events.
Environment
refers to all of the surroundings and the conditions that affect living things.
Natural/Physical Environment
are all the things in and around a place that were not made or brought in by people.
Cultural/Human Features
are those things in and around that were built, made or brought there by people.
Geographic
refers to the details of a specific region.
A geographic profile
is an outline or summary that includes the physical and human features on a map.
suburb
is a residential district located on the outskirts of a city
rural
describes a countryside used cheifly for agriculture either now or in the recent past
society
refers to all people or group of people regarded as forming a single community having common traditions and interest
human activity
is the occupations of interests, actions and behaviors of people interacting with the enviroment
movment
refers to transportation and communitcation. transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another
alter
means to change or modify
human enviroment-interaction-H-E-I also explains how they adapt to enviro.
explains how people live in a place , explains how they change their enviroment, building bridges ect.
cultural patterns
refers to the human imorints on their landscape or the unique use of physical enviroment by particular group of people
culture
is the way people live, includes people ideas , beliefs, language, values, knowledge, customs and how they make things
a culture region
is an are with common knowedge, attitudes and behaviors.
a region
is and are having some characteristics the distinguish it from other areas
physical region
is an area with common natural features
a landform
is any feature of earths surface having a distinct shape and origin. include major features like ocean basins. continents ect.
ocean basin
also known as the ocean floor, ocean floor is the part of the earths outer surface that is covered by the ocean
mountain
refers to land that rises 1000 feet or higher than the surrounding areas
mountain range
is a row of connected mountains
winward
refers to the side of the mountain (or something else ) facing into the wind.
leeward
or the rain shadow refers to the side of a mountain that is sheltered from the wind
hill
is a raised section of land. smaller than a mountain and has a rounded summit.
plain
is a large are of land, either level or gently rolling, usually at low elevation
plateay
is a large flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land and is usually with steep sides
peninsula
is a peice of land surrounded by water on three sides. florida and italy are peninsulas
topography
refers to the lay of the land, topography is the shape of the surface features of a geographics area
crust
is the culture layer of the earth, it is a relatively thin layer of rock that coats the earth
mantel
is the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
core
is that portion of the interior part of the earth that lies beneath the mantle and goes all of the way to the cneter (inner outter core)
volcano
is a mountain or hill built up by the cruption of the molten rock and ash from the earths interior
volcanologist
are scientist who study volcanos
earthq2uake
is a shanking of the earth caused by a sudden movement of the rock beneath the earths surface
seismic waves
are vibrations caused by movement of rocks in the earths crust, when seismic waves reach the surface they could cause earthquakes
seismologists
are scientists who study earthquakes and sesmic waves
fault
is a crack or fracture in the earths crust. ,movement along the fault can cause earthquakes and in the process of mountains -building
continental drift
refers to the theory that the contients are drifting across the earth
plate tectonics
refer to the interaction of the thick slabs of rock called plates that make up the earths crust
mining
is the extraction (removal) of minerals (like coal, gold, or silver ) from the ground
natural vegation
is the plant life of an area that existed prior to it being modified by people
climate
is the average weather conditions of a particular place over a long period of time, usually 30 yrs
climate regions
are the areas that share similar tempatures and precipation throughout the year
climate graph
is a graph that shows both the average monthly tempature (line graphs) and the average monthly precipitaion (bargraph) of a place
temperature
is the degree of the hotness or coldness that can be measured using a thermoneter
precipitation
is moisture that falls from the atmosphere as rain, snow, sleet, hail or drizzle
tropical climates
occur in areas that maintain and average temperature of about 70 degress for all months
temperate climates
are found between the tropic of cancer and arcticcircle and the antartic circle and also between the tropic of capricorn and antarctic circle
polar climates
have extremly cold winters and summers 2 climates tundra, ice cap
high elevation
climates are influenced by elevation, hight the elevation colder it gets
weather
is the daily condition of the atomosphere
atmosphere
is air surrounding the earth
drought
is a period of time when precipitation levels are low
hurricane/cyclone/typhson
is violent rotating windstorm (74 mph or higher). they are called hurricanes in the atlantic & eastern pacific
Prehistory
before history was written down, before people developed systems of written language
Archaeology
the scientific study of people from the past by looking at things they left behind (artifacts)
Ancient
really really really old
Artifacts
objects made by people long ago
Hunters and Gatherers
people who move around following wild animals to hunt and wild plants to eat
Historians
people who study, write and record history
Migrated
Moved from one place to another
Ice Age
A period of time when glaciers covered great stretches of land!
Glacier
Giant sheet of ice
Stone Age
A period of time when humans primarily relied upon stone tools
Primarily
Mainly, mostly, firstly
Old Stone Age
The early, longest period of the Stone Age, when little progress was made in human development
Progress
growth, gain
New Stone Age
The late period of the Stone Age, when humans made great improvements in technology
Period
length of time
drought
a long period of dry weather
Famine
widespread lack of food
surplus
extra supply
barter
trade of one kind of product for another without the use of money
Fertile Crescent
strip of well watered land in Middle East shaped like a quarter moon
Mesopotamia
land between rivers
city-state
self-governing city and the lands surrounding it
ziggurat
temples built by Sumerians to honor their gods and goddesses
Code of Hammurabi
first set of recorded laws; also know as
Hammurabi
Babylonian king who created first Code of Laws
Sumer
home of the Sumerians; located in Southern Mesopotamia
Babylon
located upstream from Sumer; the people built a very strong empire here
cuneiform
wedge-shaped writing created by Sumerians
nomad
person who travels in search of his/her food;no permanent home
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
created by the Babylonians;one of the Seven Wonders of the World;not sure if this actually existed
Tigris
This river stretches into parts of Syria
Euphrates
One of twin rivers;located on to the east of the Tigris
Judaism
This religion was developed by the Hebrews;followed by more than 17 million people, known as Jews
Ten Commandments
Laws given to Moses from God
polytheism
belief in more than one god
monotheism
belief in only one god
Abraham
great Hebrew leader
Moses
was given 10 commandments by god;great Hebrew leader
Solomon
had a reputation for wisdom;created sayings called proverbs
Canaan
land given to Hebrews;located in the western part of the Fertile Crescent
Mount Sinai
site where 10 commandments were given
Jerusalem
city where Solomon grew up;his father David was king of this land
plateau
a raised area of level land bordered on one or more sides by steep slopes or cliffs
fertile
able to support plant growth
archipelago
a group of islands
population density
the average number of people living in a square mile or square kilometer
monsoon
a wind that changes direction with the change of season
typhoon
a tropical storm that develops over the Pacific Ocean, with winds that reach speeds greater than 74 miles per hour
deciduous
falling off or shedding, as in leaves, seasonally or at a certain stage of development
developing country
a country that has low industrial production and little modern technology
developed country
a country with many industries and a well-developed economy
terrace
a level area in a hillside
double-cropping
to grow two or more crops on the same land
Direct Democracy
is a system of government in which the people share the power
Parliamentary Democracy
is a form of government in which voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body (parliament), which then chooses a leader, the prime minister
Republic
is a government in which the citizens elect representatives to make laws
Communism
is a form of government under which the government owns all the land, businesses, and resources
Dictatorship
is a government controlled by one person, called a dictator, who usually takes power by force.
Absolute Monarchy
is a form of government in which most of the power is in the hands of one person, the monarch. The monarch's power is hereditary
Constitutional Monarchy
is a form of government in which a monarch is the head of state with limited to no power. The people elect representatives to run the government-the people have the power
Anarchy
is a social structure without government, law, or order
United States
Barack Obama
Canada
Stephen Harper
Mexico
Felipe Calderon
Cuba
Raul Castro
United Kingdom
Gordon Brown
France
Nicolas Sarkozy
Russia
Dimitriy Medvedev
Israel
Benjamin Netanyahu
Egypt
Hosni Mubarak
Iran
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Afghanistan
Hamid Karzai
Pakistan
Asif Al Zardari
North Korea
Kim Jung Il
Venezuela
Hugo Chavez
Beringia
A land bridge which connected present-day Asia and North America
potlatches
Ceremonial gatherings of Native Americans and Pacific Northwest
adobe
a brick or building material made of sun-dried earth and straw
buffalo
large shaggy-haired brown bison of North American plains
tepees
cone-shaped tents usually made of animal skins
Hohokam
Native Ameriacans who lived in the Southwest from about 300 B.C. to A.D. 1300s and used irragation to bring water to the crops
Pueblo
a member of any of about two dozen Native American peoples called pueblos by the Spanish because they live in villages built of adobe and rock
Hopewell
A mound builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley from about 200 B.C to AD 400
Mississipians
Lived in the Eastern Woodlands from 700 AD to 1550 AD along the Mississippi River
chinampas
raised fileds made with mud taken from the bottom of lakes which increased the amount of food farmers could grow
quipu
a group of knotted strings used by the Incas to record information
Olmec
the earliest-known Mesoamerican civilization, which flourished aroun 1200 B.C. and influenced later societies throughout the region.
Chavin
the first major South American civilization, which flourished in the highlands of what is now Peru from about 900 to 200 B.C.
Maya
Considered MesoAmerica's most advanced civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar. (p. 302)
Toltec
a people who invaded central Mexico and were ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the AD 1100s
Aztec
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Inca
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, known as the "children of the sun" centered in Peru. The Inca ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
Quechua
language of the Incas
strait
a narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water
Quetzalcoatl
Aztec god, the "feathered serpent," who was borrowed origionally from the Toltecs; was believed to have been defeated by another god and exiled, and he promised to return riding on a cloud.
Aztec Military
dominated Aztec sociey as warriors earning prestige, wealth, and power
Aztec Religion
Consisted of feeding the sun god with human sacrifices...constantly at war with darkness
Inca Unification
an effort by this South American civilization to eliminate regional differences by moving villages, establishing a common language and religion, and transportation network