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physical features

are the natural characteristics of the earths surface

human settlements

refer to the communities founded and developed by people such as villages, towns ect.

The Legend

is the part of the map where you will find the explanation to the meaning of symbols and pictures on a map.

A Compass Rose

is the symbol on a map which shows the directions of N.S.E.W.

Cardinal Directions

are the four main points of a compass.

Intermiediate directions

are the points of a compass that fall between the four cardinal directions.

A Globe

is a round model of the Earth.

A Hemisphere

is one half of a globe.

The Equator

is an imaginary line around the middle of the earth.


is the distance North or South of the Equator.

Lines of Latitude

measure the distance North or South of the Equator.

Low Latitudes

is an area between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator.

Middle Latitudes

are the areas that lie primarily between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.

High Latitudes

are located between 60 and 90 degrees in both hemispheres.


are the periods of the year that are distinguished by special climate conditions.


refers to the spinning of a body such as the Earth, about it's axis.


refers to the motion of Earht around the sun.

Prime Meridian

is an imaginary line running from the North Pole to South Pole.

The International Dateline

is an imaginary line of longitude generally 180 degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian.


is the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Lines of Longitude

measure the distance east or west of the Prime Meridain.


referes to a collection of features that distinguish it from other places.


refers to a particular place on Earth.

Relative location

is the position of a place in relation to another place.

Exact location

tells you exactly where a place is.


refer to the system of latitude and longitude to locate places on Earth.


refers to a relation between things or events.


refers to all of the surroundings and the conditions that affect living things.

Natural/Physical Environment

are all the things in and around a place that were not made or brought in by people.

Cultural/Human Features

are those things in and around that were built, made or brought there by people.


refers to the details of a specific region.

A geographic profile

is an outline or summary that includes the physical and human features on a map.


is a residential district located on the outskirts of a city


describes a countryside used cheifly for agriculture either now or in the recent past


refers to all people or group of people regarded as forming a single community having common traditions and interest

human activity

is the occupations of interests, actions and behaviors of people interacting with the enviroment


refers to transportation and communitcation. transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another


means to change or modify

human enviroment-interaction-H-E-I also explains how they adapt to enviro.

explains how people live in a place , explains how they change their enviroment, building bridges ect.

cultural patterns

refers to the human imorints on their landscape or the unique use of physical enviroment by particular group of people


is the way people live, includes people ideas , beliefs, language, values, knowledge, customs and how they make things

a culture region

is an are with common knowedge, attitudes and behaviors.

a region

is and are having some characteristics the distinguish it from other areas

physical region

is an area with common natural features

a landform

is any feature of earths surface having a distinct shape and origin. include major features like ocean basins. continents ect.

ocean basin

also known as the ocean floor, ocean floor is the part of the earths outer surface that is covered by the ocean


refers to land that rises 1000 feet or higher than the surrounding areas

mountain range

is a row of connected mountains


refers to the side of the mountain (or something else ) facing into the wind.


or the rain shadow refers to the side of a mountain that is sheltered from the wind


is a raised section of land. smaller than a mountain and has a rounded summit.


is a large are of land, either level or gently rolling, usually at low elevation


is a large flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land and is usually with steep sides


is a peice of land surrounded by water on three sides. florida and italy are peninsulas


refers to the lay of the land, topography is the shape of the surface features of a geographics area


is the culture layer of the earth, it is a relatively thin layer of rock that coats the earth


is the layer of the earth between the crust and the core


is that portion of the interior part of the earth that lies beneath the mantle and goes all of the way to the cneter (inner outter core)


is a mountain or hill built up by the cruption of the molten rock and ash from the earths interior


are scientist who study volcanos


is a shanking of the earth caused by a sudden movement of the rock beneath the earths surface

seismic waves

are vibrations caused by movement of rocks in the earths crust, when seismic waves reach the surface they could cause earthquakes


are scientists who study earthquakes and sesmic waves


is a crack or fracture in the earths crust. ,movement along the fault can cause earthquakes and in the process of mountains -building

continental drift

refers to the theory that the contients are drifting across the earth

plate tectonics

refer to the interaction of the thick slabs of rock called plates that make up the earths crust


is the extraction (removal) of minerals (like coal, gold, or silver ) from the ground

natural vegation

is the plant life of an area that existed prior to it being modified by people


is the average weather conditions of a particular place over a long period of time, usually 30 yrs

climate regions

are the areas that share similar tempatures and precipation throughout the year

climate graph

is a graph that shows both the average monthly tempature (line graphs) and the average monthly precipitaion (bargraph) of a place


is the degree of the hotness or coldness that can be measured using a thermoneter


is moisture that falls from the atmosphere as rain, snow, sleet, hail or drizzle

tropical climates

occur in areas that maintain and average temperature of about 70 degress for all months

temperate climates

are found between the tropic of cancer and arcticcircle and the antartic circle and also between the tropic of capricorn and antarctic circle

polar climates

have extremly cold winters and summers 2 climates tundra, ice cap

high elevation

climates are influenced by elevation, hight the elevation colder it gets


is the daily condition of the atomosphere


is air surrounding the earth


is a period of time when precipitation levels are low


is violent rotating windstorm (74 mph or higher). they are called hurricanes in the atlantic & eastern pacific


before history was written down, before people developed systems of written language


the scientific study of people from the past by looking at things they left behind (artifacts)


really really really old


objects made by people long ago

Hunters and Gatherers

people who move around following wild animals to hunt and wild plants to eat


people who study, write and record history


Moved from one place to another

Ice Age

A period of time when glaciers covered great stretches of land!


Giant sheet of ice

Stone Age

A period of time when humans primarily relied upon stone tools


Mainly, mostly, firstly

Old Stone Age

The early, longest period of the Stone Age, when little progress was made in human development


growth, gain

New Stone Age

The late period of the Stone Age, when humans made great improvements in technology


length of time


a long period of dry weather


widespread lack of food


extra supply


trade of one kind of product for another without the use of money

Fertile Crescent

strip of well watered land in Middle East shaped like a quarter moon


land between rivers


self-governing city and the lands surrounding it


temples built by Sumerians to honor their gods and goddesses

Code of Hammurabi

first set of recorded laws; also know as


Babylonian king who created first Code of Laws


home of the Sumerians; located in Southern Mesopotamia


located upstream from Sumer; the people built a very strong empire here


wedge-shaped writing created by Sumerians


person who travels in search of his/her food;no permanent home

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

created by the Babylonians;one of the Seven Wonders of the World;not sure if this actually existed


This river stretches into parts of Syria


One of twin rivers;located on to the east of the Tigris


This religion was developed by the Hebrews;followed by more than 17 million people, known as Jews

Ten Commandments

Laws given to Moses from God


belief in more than one god


belief in only one god


great Hebrew leader


was given 10 commandments by god;great Hebrew leader


had a reputation for wisdom;created sayings called proverbs


land given to Hebrews;located in the western part of the Fertile Crescent

Mount Sinai

site where 10 commandments were given


city where Solomon grew up;his father David was king of this land


a raised area of level land bordered on one or more sides by steep slopes or cliffs


able to support plant growth


a group of islands

population density

the average number of people living in a square mile or square kilometer


a wind that changes direction with the change of season


a tropical storm that develops over the Pacific Ocean, with winds that reach speeds greater than 74 miles per hour


falling off or shedding, as in leaves, seasonally or at a certain stage of development

developing country

a country that has low industrial production and little modern technology

developed country

a country with many industries and a well-developed economy


a level area in a hillside


to grow two or more crops on the same land

Direct Democracy

is a system of government in which the people share the power

Parliamentary Democracy

is a form of government in which voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body (parliament), which then chooses a leader, the prime minister


is a government in which the citizens elect representatives to make laws


is a form of government under which the government owns all the land, businesses, and resources


is a government controlled by one person, called a dictator, who usually takes power by force.

Absolute Monarchy

is a form of government in which most of the power is in the hands of one person, the monarch. The monarch's power is hereditary

Constitutional Monarchy

is a form of government in which a monarch is the head of state with limited to no power. The people elect representatives to run the government-the people have the power


is a social structure without government, law, or order

United States

Barack Obama


Stephen Harper


Felipe Calderon


Raul Castro

United Kingdom

Gordon Brown


Nicolas Sarkozy


Dimitriy Medvedev

See more

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