Social Studies Practice Test form A

Terms in this set (78)

Similar in beliefs to Jean-Jacques Rousseau

-believed people in a state of nature would willingly come together to form a state
(this is the one thing he and Hobbes agree on)
-believed that people, left to their own devices, would be bound by the Law of Nature not to harm each other, but would live in fear without a gvmt to defend them against other people who wanted to hurt or enslave them
-believed people would have no sense of security in their rights without gvmt to protect them
- argued that individuals would agree to form a state that would provide a "neutral judge", acting to protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within it.

-argued for inviolate freedom under law in his Second Treatise of Government. Locke argued that government's legitimacy comes from the citizens' delegation to the government of their right of self-defense (of "self-preservation"), along with elements of other rights as necessary to achieve the goal of security (e.g. property will be liable to taxation). The government thus acts as an impartial, objective agent of that self-defense, rather than each man acting as his own judge, jury, and executioner—the condition in the state of nature. In this view, government derives its "just powers from the consent [i.e, delegation] of the governed,".


1.) Democracy
2.) All people are born with certain inalienable rights. They are life, liberty, and the the right to own property.
3.) Believed that people were by nature good and that they could learn from their experiences.
4.) Yes, people could be trusted to govern themselves. Locke believed that if provided with the right information would make good decisions.
5.) The purpose of the government is to protect individual liberties and rights.
6.) The people had the right to revolt against an abusive government.
Thought human beings were naturally peaceful until civilization came along
Swiss-born french author, championed freedom and justice; believed that in the "state of nature" people were honest, unselfish, and free and that greed and corruption was introduced by organized society;

-wrote the book, "The Social Contract" in 1762 (but did not come up with the idea, others before him were already debating this before his book came out)

Believed:
- foundations of political rights based on unlimited popular sovereignty (government is created by and completely subject to the will of the people)
-did not approve of representative government
-liberty possible only where there was direct rule by the people as a whole in lawmaking (communism)
-popular sovereignty indivisible and inalienable
-group has priority over each individual: a citizen cannot pursue his true interest by being an egoist but must instead subordinate himself to the law created by the citizenry acting as a collective.
-man must "be forced to be free": since the indivisible and inalienable popular sovereignty decides what is good for the whole, then if an individual lapses back into his ordinary egoism and disobeys the law, he will be forced to listen to what was decided when the people acted as a collectivity
-the law, in as much as it is created by the people acting as a body, is not a limitation of individual freedom, but its expression
-enforcement of law, including criminal law, is not a restriction on individual liberty: the individual, as a citizen, explicitly agreed to be constrained if, as a private individual, he did not respect his own will as formulated in the general will.
-the law is a civilizing force, and therefore Rousseau believed that the laws that govern a people helped to mold their character.
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