Social Studies Practice Test form A
Terms in this set (78)
The relative scarcity of arable land in China led to ____________________ in Chinese social life?
Early development of intensive agricultural cultivation techniques
In order to compensate for a scarcity of land, farmers in China used cast iron tools, animals to pull plows, irrigation, and water conservation projects to increase efficiency in farm production.
B. More precipitation | More-extreme temperatures
This is because of the rain shadow effect which occurs as air masses move from lower elevations to higher elevations, creating more rainfall on the western side of the mountain and colder, drier temperatures on the eastern side of the mountain.
Based on the illustration above, which of the following pairs best describes the relative amount of precipitation and temperature variation for the areas west and east of the mountain range?
A. More precipitation | More-moderate temperatures
B. More precipitation | More-extreme temperatures
C. Less precipitation |More-moderate temperatures
D. Less precipitation | More-extreme temperatures
Which of the following is an effect of the Gulf Stream?
A. North America is significantly dryer and colder than it otherwise would be.
B. The North Atlantic has the most unstable weather of any ocean on Earth.
C. Travel time for ships and aircraft is much shorter from Europe to North America than from North America to Europe.
D. The climate of Western Europe is significantly warmer and milder than it otherwise would be.
The climate of Western Europe is significantly warmer and milder than it otherwise would be.
The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current that flows in the western North Atlantic, originating at the tip of Florida, traveling along the American coastline and splitting into the North Atlantic Drift that crosses to Northern Europe.
powerful, warm, and swift current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and flows into the Atlantic Ocean to Northern Europe and makes Western Europe warmer and milder than it would otherwise be
(discovered by Ben Franklin and cousin)
the spread of cultural items (ideas, fashion, technology, etc.) from one central point to another
ex: The Russian people's interest in acquiring and wearing American blue jeans is an example of this
social and behavioral norms that determine how males and females speak, think, dress, and interact within society
During the era of classical civilizations, ___________ primarily drove interaction between the Roman and Han empires.
Trade in luxury goods
The Silk Road was a system of trade routes established during the Han Dynasty that stretched from China through India to Egypt, and eventually to the Roman Empire.
Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, signed at the end of the First World War, was that Germany had to __________________________.
take the blame for Allied losses and damage, and for the war in general
this is sometimes called the "war guilt" clause.
This important provision stated that "Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments . . . have been subjected as a consequence of . . . the aggression of Germany and her allies."
Which of the following Native American cultures is known for its complex temples and pyramids and its cultivation of maize?
Stone temples and pyramids are associated with the Aztec Indians of central Mexico, specifically the great pyramid of Tenochtitlan in present-day Mexico City.
Aztec people were also known for growing maize.
Aztec Indians are known for _____________ and ______________.
They lived in __________________.
-Stone temples and pyramids, specifically the great pyramid of Tenochtitlan in present-day Mexico City
In 1776, _____________ wrote the now-famous "Remember the Ladies" letter to her husband, ______, who was serving as the Massachusetts representative to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
This letter is viewed by historians as an early illustration of the interest and activism of women in national policy.
Abigail Adams, John Adams
Which of the following issues did the Three-Fifths Compromise at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was the result of a debate within the __________1_______
about _______2_________ based on ____3______or ____4_______.
The result was decided that ______5_______________ in terms of ________a______, ____b_______, and ____c_________.
1.) Continental Congress
2.) apportioning taxes
4.) land value
5.) 3/5 of a state's slaves were counted
c.)and direct taxes.
What did the United States Supreme Court conclude in its 1857 ruling on the Dred Scott case?
"Slaves had no legal right to sue for their freedom."
Chief Justice Roger Taney (remember Real Tool) ruled that all blacks - slaves as well as free blacks - were not and could never become citizens of the United States; therefore, they had no legal right to sue in federal courts.
In 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed in order to
guarantee women the right to vote
"the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied. . . on account of sex."
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic, political and military aid to any country threatened by communism or authoritarian/totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Responsibilities of citizenship
Citizens should: vote, attend civic meetings, be informed, respect others, volunteer in their community.
Which of the following is a responsibility of a citizen of the United States?
A. Participating in a protest
B. Starting a business
C. Attending a university
D. Volunteering in a community
Volunteering in a community
What factors contributed to a decline in the prices of farm goods in the late-nineteenth-century United States?
Overproduction of agricultural products caused by improved farming methods and increases in farm land acreage.
The Constitution's has a ______________ structure
division of power: any powers not explicitly listed are automatically given to the states
Which of the following exemplifies the Constitution's federalist structure?
A. The separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches
B. The Full Faith and Credit clause of Article IV of the Constitution
C. The Supremacy clause of Article VI of the Constitution
D. The Tenth Amendment's division of power between national and state governments
The Tenth Amendment's division of power between national and state governments
Federalism is the division of power between the national and state governments The U.S. Constitution establishes this federalist structure through the Tenth Amendment.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
helped to influence the writing of the United States Constitution in saying that no order exists in a state of nature, and therefore people need to surrender some of their power and form a government to create order
-Wrote the book, "Leviathan"
argued for near-absolute authority
-The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed social contract theory
-Essentially said that people are war-like monsters and need the government to create order
-believed that the social contract was an 'occurrence' when individuals came together and ceded some of their individual rights so that others would cede theirs (e.g. person A gives up his/her right to kill person B if person B does the same).
-by giving up some of their rights, human life was thus no longer "a war of all against all"
Locke vs. Hobbes:
Quality of life in a state of nature
Locke: people are born good and are corrupted by society, therefore they are better of in a state of nature
Hobbes: life in a state of nature would be nasty and brutish
Locke vs Hobbes:
Locke: ownership of property is a natural right
Hobbes: property only causes competition and conflict
Locke vs Hobbes:
Locke: Religious tolerance
Hobbes: a government should have only one religion to maintain unity
Locke vs Hobbes:
Preferred type of Government
Locke: Any form of representative government
Hobbes: Absolute monarchy, near-absolute authority
Locke vs Hobbes:
Views on government and rights
Locke & Hobbes (yes they actually agree): people must give up some of their rights in order to gain protection and the security of basic rights, and people would willing come together to form a state/gvmt
Similar in beliefs to Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-believed people in a state of nature would willingly come together to form a state
(this is the one thing he and Hobbes agree on)
-believed that people, left to their own devices, would be bound by the Law of Nature not to harm each other, but would live in fear without a gvmt to defend them against other people who wanted to hurt or enslave them
-believed people would have no sense of security in their rights without gvmt to protect them
- argued that individuals would agree to form a state that would provide a "neutral judge", acting to protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within it.
-argued for inviolate freedom under law in his Second Treatise of Government. Locke argued that government's legitimacy comes from the citizens' delegation to the government of their right of self-defense (of "self-preservation"), along with elements of other rights as necessary to achieve the goal of security (e.g. property will be liable to taxation). The government thus acts as an impartial, objective agent of that self-defense, rather than each man acting as his own judge, jury, and executioner—the condition in the state of nature. In this view, government derives its "just powers from the consent [i.e, delegation] of the governed,".
2.) All people are born with certain inalienable rights. They are life, liberty, and the the right to own property.
3.) Believed that people were by nature good and that they could learn from their experiences.
4.) Yes, people could be trusted to govern themselves. Locke believed that if provided with the right information would make good decisions.
5.) The purpose of the government is to protect individual liberties and rights.
6.) The people had the right to revolt against an abusive government.
Thought human beings were naturally peaceful until civilization came along
Swiss-born french author, championed freedom and justice; believed that in the "state of nature" people were honest, unselfish, and free and that greed and corruption was introduced by organized society;
-wrote the book, "The Social Contract" in 1762 (but did not come up with the idea, others before him were already debating this before his book came out)
- foundations of political rights based on unlimited popular sovereignty (government is created by and completely subject to the will of the people)
-did not approve of representative government
-liberty possible only where there was direct rule by the people as a whole in lawmaking (communism)
-popular sovereignty indivisible and inalienable
-group has priority over each individual: a citizen cannot pursue his true interest by being an egoist but must instead subordinate himself to the law created by the citizenry acting as a collective.
-man must "be forced to be free": since the indivisible and inalienable popular sovereignty decides what is good for the whole, then if an individual lapses back into his ordinary egoism and disobeys the law, he will be forced to listen to what was decided when the people acted as a collectivity
-the law, in as much as it is created by the people acting as a body, is not a limitation of individual freedom, but its expression
-enforcement of law, including criminal law, is not a restriction on individual liberty: the individual, as a citizen, explicitly agreed to be constrained if, as a private individual, he did not respect his own will as formulated in the general will.
-the law is a civilizing force, and therefore Rousseau believed that the laws that govern a people helped to mold their character.
The agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
Most prominent and 18th-century theorists of social contract and natural rights:
Hugo Grotius (1583-1645),
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679),
Samuel Pufendorf (1673),
John Locke (1689),
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762),
Immanuel Kant (1797)
Which of the following is required for an individual to cast a ballot in any federal election in the United States?
A. Membership in a political party
B. A valid driver's license
C. Voter registration
Prospective voters must register with the state voter registrar in order to vote in federal elections.
Which of the following is true of the effect of high tariffs on an economy in the long run?
They benefit some groups at the expense of others
Tariffs are usually implemented to protect domestic manufacturing, but they may result in a weakening of related economies as those countries affected by the tariff purchase fewer goods. For example, the Tariff of 1828, while designed to protect northern manufacturing, reduced British imports of cotton from the southern United States thereby damaging the southern economy.
In which of the following types of economies do the government and central planners play the largest part in deciding how resources are used and distributed to the people?
C. Free market
In command economies, the government makes all of the decisions regarding the production and distribution of goods and services.
Which resource would be most useful to a researcher who is studying the significance of the Suez Canal, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Strait of Gibraltar?
A map of the countries located between the North Atlantic and the Arabian Sea
The Suez Canal is located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, the Strait of Hormuz is located between Iran and Oman, and the Strait of Gibraltar is located between Spain and Northwest Africa.
A man-made canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea which was opened to shipping in 1869.
Egyptians with funding from France and later Britain created this major transportation project completed in 1869.
Shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Strait of Hormuz
A narrow body of water crucial for the shipment of goods such as oil from the Persian gulf into the arabian sea and indian ocean.
It is a choke point that controls the entrance and exit to the Persian gulf.
Persia = Iran
Strait of Gibraltar
Strategic waterway, controlled by British, between Spain and Africa
Africa lies just 8 km away from Spain across the _____.
(Think: The Alchemist)
Which of the following is the most effective method for a farmer to use to minimize the effects of a drought?
Using drip irrigation
The question would encourage the student to think about what farmers can do in response to drought conditions and that drip irrigation would be an effective way to conserve water.
What is the rain shadow effect?
The rain shadow effect occurs as air masses move from lower elevations to higher elevations, creating more rainfall on the western side of the mountain and colder, drier temperatures on the eastern side of the mountain.
Which of the following describes a significant effect of deforestation in South America?
Increased threats to wildlife habitats
The question would encourage the candidate to understand a significant effect of deforestation and one such effect is a threat to wildlife habitats.
Which of the following describes the effect of the interstate highway system on life in the United States?
A. Increased suburban development
B. Increased education funding
C. Decreased use of airline transportation
D. Decreased demand for overseas goods
Increased suburban development
What was the context for the Gettysburg Address?
The dedication of a national cemetery during the American Civil War
Which of the following is one governmental power established by the Articles of Confederation?
A. The creation of an equitable system of taxation
B. The ability to negotiate with foreign governments
C. The establishment of a powerful executive branch
D. The establishment of a system of national court
The ability to negotiate with foreign governments
Which of the following most contributed to the growth of factory production in the United States during the early 1800s?
A. Rise in labor union membership
B. Introduction of new technologies
C. Creation of vocational programs
D. Increase in government regulations
Introduction of new technologies
Which of the following colonies was established as a haven for English Catholics?
C. South Carolina
D. New Hampshire
Maryland was founded as a haven for English Catholics
Which inventor is most associated with the use of the assembly line?
Which of the following events is recognized as the end of the American Civil War?
A. The second Battle of Bull Run
B. The election of Abraham Lincoln
C. The secession of South Carolina
D. The Battle of Appomattox Court House
The Battle of Appomattox Court House
Which of the following actions led to Unites States involvement in the First World War?
A. The bombing of naval bases in the Pacific
B. The surrender of military forces from Russia
C. The invasion of neutral territories by Germany
D. The use of submarine warfare in the Atlantic
The use of submarine warfare in the Atlantic
The practice of unrestricted submarine warfare on civilian vessels like the Lusitania continued after the Zimmerman Telegram and was a major reason behind the United States declaration of war against Germany.
Which of the following presidents expanded the United States space program by establishing the goal of landing astronauts on the Moon?
A. Harry S. Truman
B. Dwight Eisenhower
C. John F. Kennedy
D. Gerald Ford
John F. Kennedy
President John F. Kennedy announced this goal in 1960, the first year of his presidency.
Which of the following describes the use of a natural resource in ancient Mesopotamia to develop an early civilization?
A. Rivers for irrigation
B. Plateaus for hunting
C. Grasslands for farming
D. Oceans for trade
Rivers for irrigation
Ancient Mesopotamia emerged as one of the early river valley civilizations through the use of river water for irrigating crops, which produced sufficient surplus of food to support the first cities.
Which of the following examples describes an action performed by the federal government?
A. Collecting property taxes to fund public schools
B. Establishing trade agreements with other nations
C. Determining zoning guidelines for urban development
D. Raising sales taxes on major goods
Establishing trade agreements with other nations
Forming trade agreements with other nations is a government action restricted to the federal government.
During the late nineteenth century, in which of the following ways did churches in the United States respond to the social problems resulting from the industrialism of the previous decades?
A. They aligned themselves with and financed the political agendas of organized labor.
B. They lobbied Congress to pass laws guaranteeing social security for all citizens.
C. They subsidized efforts to build small homes for the working poor.
D. They built and maintained mission schools, orphanages, and homes for the aged.
They built and maintained mission schools, orphanages, and homes for the aged.
Activists within the Social Gospel movement helped alleviate social issues by providing social services during the late nineteenth century.
Social Gospel Movement
A social reform movement in the late 19th century (1800s) that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society.
They helped alleviate social issues by providing social services during the late nineteenth century.
Which of the following physical features provided a natural barrier against the growth of British colonies in North America?
A. The Gulf of Mexico
B. The Appalachian Mountains
C. The Mississippi River
D. The Rocky Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains
The British did not establish colonies west of the Appalachian Mountains. In addition, the British tried to discourage settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains by issuing the Royal Proclamation of 1763, with the Proclamation Line, after the end of the 7 years war, that all the colonists ignored and went to settle further west anyway.
Royal Proclamation of 1763
Issued by George III after Britain's acquisition of French territory following the Seven Years' War.
-forbade settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains
-proclamation on land treaties by the British establishing two important principles for negotiations : a) land ownership rights of the First Nations to be respected;
b) if a First Nation did choose to give up land, it should receive a fair payment for it
Which of the following factors most increased cultural diversity within the United States during the early nineteenth century?
A. The relocation of American Indians in western territories
B. The arrival of European immigrants in urban areas
C. The migration of African Americans to northern cities
D. The arrival of Asian workers to build railroads
The arrival of European immigrants in urban areas
European immigrants represented many cultures, so they increased diversity in the United States more than any action by a single group.
Which of the following most contributed to the expansion of the Roman Empire under Emperor Augustus?
A. The collection of taxes from conquered areas
B. The appointment of public officials to the government
C. The toleration of monotheism in conquered lands
D. The establishment of an organized military system
The establishment of an organized military system
The efficiency and structure of the Roman military enabled the Roman Empire to expand through conquest.
Answer the question by clicking on the correct response.
Question: Which of the following most contributed to Japan's rise as an industrial power in the late nineteenth century?
A. Acquiring natural resources from China
B. Establishing trade with the United States
C. Joining a military alliance with Germany
D. Annexing territories from Russia
Establishing trade with the United States
The arrival of Commodore Perry and the opening of trade with the United States and other countries was one of the greatest factors in the industrial development of Japan.
Which of the following contributed to the development of both ancient China and Rome?
A. The building of large universities
B. The printing of paper currency
C. The practice of representative government
D. The establishment of trade centers
The establishment of trade centers
Both ancient China and Rome developed due to extensive trade networks, increasing the power of their individual civilizations.
Which of the following is most associated with the Boston Tea Party?
A. Impressment of sailors
B. Quartering of troops in homes
C. Increased taxes on commodities
D. Restrictions on due process
Increased taxes on commodities
Which of the following best explains how the global depression affected Germany after the First World War?
A. Labor union membership increased across the country.
B. Banks offered loans to rebuild homes.
C. Government implemented regulations to improve worker safety.
D. Inflation rates increased across the country.
Inflation rates increased across the country.
The global depression after World War I resulted in increased inflation in Germany.
Which of the following groups was declared free by the Emancipation Proclamation?
A. Enslaved people who had escaped to western territories
B. Enslaved people who lived in border states
C. Enslaved people who served in the federal army
D. Enslaved people who lived in areas still in rebellion
Enslaved people who lived in areas still in rebellion
Which of the following changes would most likely occur in a community with high rates of immigration?
A. The reduction of small business revenues
B. A decline in religious observances
C. The establishment of new cultural festivals
D. An increase in zoning regulations
The establishment of new cultural festivals
Which of the following items are both human wants?
A. Shelter and clothing
B. Food and cars
C. Clothing and video games
D. Computers and sports equipment
Computers and sports equipment
question is asking about WANTS, not needs
Which of the following is considered a right of United States citizenship?
A. To obey laws
B. To serve on a jury
C. To worship freely
D. To pay income taxes
To worship freely
Which of the following best defines opportunity cost?
A. Allocating federal taxes to improve the economy
B. Gaining one item out of two by giving up the second item
C. Having limited resources to produce goods for market
D. Allocating funds for the manufacture of a specific product
Gaining one item out of two by giving up the second item
Which of the following is most responsible for changing the cultural landscape of the American West in the late nineteenth century?
A. The expansion of the railroad
B. The growth of Indian settlements
C. The relocation of Mexican citizens
D. The establishment of slave states
The expansion of the railroad
The expansion of the railroad brought diverse groups to the western territories who created cities and town along the railways.
Which of the following characteristics best describes the New England colonies?
A. Rich farmland and humid climate
B. Good harbors and moderate climate
C. Rocky terrain and cold winters
D. Coastal lowlands and moderate winters
Rocky terrain and cold winters
Which of the following is associated with the relocation of Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma?
A. The Dawes Act
B. The Adams-Onis Treaty
C. The Trail of Tears
D. The Great Migration
The Trail of Tears
the Trail of Tears was the forced relocation of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma
The Trail of Tears
The 1838 forceful removal of Native Americans, particularly the Cherokee, from their homelands in Georgia and Tennessee as ordered by President Andrew Jackson in the Indian Removal Act.
The Cherokee were made to march in the winter to reservations in Oklahoma by federal troops under General Winfield Scott. Over 4,000 died out of 16,000 who were forced to go. One of the greatest tragedies in American history.
The Dawes Act
Passed by Congress in 1887. Its purpose was to Americanize the Native Americans. The act broke up the reservations, gave some of the land to Native Americans. The government was to sell the remainder to white settlers and use the income from that sale for Native Americans to buy farm equipment. But by 1932 white settlers had taken 2/3 of reservation territory, and Native Americans received no money from the sale of the reservations.
The Adams-Onis Treaty
aka the Transcontinental Treaty/Florida Purchase Treaty/Florida Treaty
-treaty between the United States and Spain that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain (now Mexico).
-settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy.
-Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons. Madrid decided to cede the territory to the United States through the Adams-Onís Treaty in exchange for settling the boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Spanish Texas.
The Great Migration
1914-1945; mass movement of African Americans from the South to the industrial centers of the Northeast and the Midwest;
reasons = jobs, prejudice, crop failures, decreasing cotton prices, the lack of immigrant workers in the North, increased manufacturing as a result of the war, and the strengthening of the KKK
leads to: higher wages, more educational opportunities, and better standards of life for some people. Unfortunately, there were also some race riots in the North
Which of the following events most contributed to Southern states seceding from the Union?
A. The inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
B. The occurrence of Nat Turner's Rebellion
C. The ratification of the Civil Rights Act
D. The signing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
The inauguration of Abraham Lincoln
Southerners opposed Lincoln gaining the presidency because he favored the Northern delegates regulating trade and expressed views against slavery.
Which of the following was a major effect of the New Deal in the United States?
Increased federal government spending
An economic system controlled by strong, centralized government, which usually focuses on industrial goods.
The allocation of resources, labor, and capital are determined by the government which also sets prices.
Cuba has a Communist government which directs all economic activity.
-religious brotherhood created during the Crusades to protect Jerusalem
-swore themselves to protect the land from the Muslims who threatened it
-later rounded up by the church and burned at the stake for being heretics.
processing systems a reader uses to extend learning