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Final Exam: Organizational Behavior Management - MGMT 320
Terms in this set (6)
Learning outcome #1: Articulate the importance of organizational behavior to the effectiveness of organizations.
Organizational behavior is defined as "the systematic study and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act within the organization where they work." In order for an organization to be truly successful at each level of analysis within organizational behavior management, the employee's attitudes and behaviors must be taken into consideration. Healthy employee attitudes and behaviors are key to this success and ultimately lead to an effective dynamic within the organization. Understanding an organization's culture, structure (leadership), and decision-making processes are examples of key aspects directly related to organizational behavior at all three levels of analysis. Effectively managing communications, motivations, perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, emotions, and conflicts at the individual and group levels directly affect the organization's ability to function properly. A satisfied workforce will be inclined to work more diligently, be more productive, and put in more effort and less inclined to leave their jobs and be unproductive at work. Research shows that when an organization invests time and effort into it's employees and into the organization itself, it will be more effective and successful.
Learning outcome #2: Demonstrate knowledge of major concepts and theories of organizational behavior.
*Similarity attraction phenomenon: more attracted to those who are similar to us.
*Fault line: imaginary line drawn between groups of people based on attributes or characteristics (i.e. gender, age, or race)
*Power distance: the degree to which the society views an unequal distribution of power as acceptable
*Big 5 personality traits: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism (p. 71)
*Self-monitoring: extent to which people are capable of monitoring their actions and appearance in social situations (p. 74)
*Self-efficacy: the belief you can perform a task successfully
*Internal locus of control: belief that a person controls their own destiny and what happens to them is their own doing. (p. 77)
*External locus of control: belief that things happen because of other people, luck, or a higher power.
P. 82 - Chapter 3: Perceptions
*false consensus error
*Attribution: the causal explanation we give for an observed behavior. (p. 84)
Need-based theories: (p.120-124)
*Maslow's hierarchy of needs
*ERG theory (existence, relatedness, growth)
* Two-factor theory (hygiene factors, motivators)
*Acquired needs theory (thematic appreciation test)
-->need for achievement, affiliation, and power
Process-based theories: (p.125-134)
*Equity theory- (referent: inputs to outputs)
--->Organizational justice: procedural, interactional, distributive.
*Expectancy theory (expectancy, instrumentality, valence)
--->positive or negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.
--->continuous schedule, fixed ratio/interval schedule, or variable schedule.
*Job enrichment, enlargement, specialization, and crafting (p. 147)
*Job characteristics model (p. 147)
--->5 core dimensions, leading to three critical psychological states, which lead to work-related outcomes
--->Task significance/identity, autonomy, growth need strength, and feedback
*Hindrance stressors (p. 175)
*General adaptation syndrome
*Job demands-resources model (JD-R) (p.177)
*Psychological capital p.183
*Positive reappraisals (p. 187)
Learning outcome #3: Identify tools managers can use to achieve individual, team and organizational goals.
*SMART goals: specific, measurable, aggressive, realistic, and time-bound. (p. 153)
*Management by objectives: (p 156)
1. setting company-wide goals derived from corporate strategy
2. determining team and department level goals
3. collaboratively setting individual goals that are aligned with corporate strategy
4. developing an action plan
5. periodically reviewing performance and revising goals
*360-degree feedback: feedback gathered from supervisors, co-workers, peers, subordinates, and sometimes customers.
*Performance incentives: merit pay, bonuses, piece-rate systems, stock options, recognition awards, gainsharing, and sales commissions etc
*Personality testing in employee selection (p. 78)
*Performance appraisals (p.157)
*Organizational behavior modification (p. 134)
--->Identify, measure, analyze, intervene, and evaluate
Learning outcome #4: Interpret, critically analyze, recommend, and defend with supporting evidence feasible courses of action for case studies.
Learning outcome #5: Demonstrate self-awareness about work related attitudes and behaviors.
g in regards to employee attitudes
Learning outcome #6: Describe the major factors affecting behavior of individuals and groups within organizations.
*Perception: the process with which individuals detect and interpret environmental stimuli. (p. 80)
**False consensus error
**Self-enhancement bias/self-effacement bias
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