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Anatomy and Physiology 2 Heart

Internal Heart Anatomy
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left ventricle
the apex of the heart is composed mostly of which chamber
mediastinum
within what body compartment is the heart located
limits movement of the heart within the mediastinum
what is the function of the pericardial sac
fibrous pericardium
what is a non-elastic tissue layer that composes the outermost layer of the pericardium. it is visible when the chest is opened
serous pericardium
the perietal and visceral pericardia are known as
perietal
which pericardium is adherent to the underside of the fibrous pericardium
epicardium, visceral pericardium
a pericardial layer is synonymous with the outer layer of the heart wall
pericardial space
what is the name of the potential space
pericardial tamponade
abnormally increased fluid volume in the pericardial space
the heart is compressed, so it does not pump blood well
what adverse effect does a cardiac tamponade have on heart function
pericardiocentesis
what medical procedure is employed to relieve a cardiac tamponade
right ventricle
most of the anterior heart surface is composed of which heart chamber
myocardium
which wall of the heart is the thickest
endocardium
name the innermost layer of the heart wall
vascular resistance
why is the left ventricular myocardium thicker than the right ventricular myocardium
right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
4 chambers of the heart
from the superior,inferior vena cavas, and coronary sinus into the right atrium, through the tricuspid and into the right ventricle, through the pulmonary valve, into the pumonary trunk, into the pulmonary arteries and into the lungs. oxygenated blood from the lungs passes through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium, through the mitral valve and into the left ventricle, through the aortic valve and into the ascending aorta
describe the flow of blood throught the heart
interatrial septum
name the structure that divides the right and left atria
atrial appendages
what is another name for atrial auricles
causes an increased risk of blood clot formation which can pass into the lungs or into the brain
briefly explain the clinical significance of stagnant blood flow in the auricles
ascending, descending, aortic arch
list the 3 regions of the thoracic aorta
brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, left subclavian
list the 3 aortic arch vessels
the brain and right arm
what are the regions supplied by the brachiocephalic trunk
the brain
what is the region supplied by the left common carotid
the left arm
what is the region supplied by the left subclavian
tricuspid, mitral
name the 2 av valves
composed of three cusps/leaflets, allows passive blood flow from right atrium to right ventricle, and prevents retrograde blood flow into the right atrium
briefly describe the tricuspid valve
composed of two cusps/leaflets, allows passive blood flow from left atrium to left ventricle, and prevents retrograde blood flow into the left atrium
briefly describe the mitral valve
tricuspid and mitral
when the atria contract which valves are open
pulmonic and aortic
when the atria contract which valves are closed
the tricuspid and mitral valves close when the blood pressure within the ventricles exceeds blood pressure within the atria
briefly describe the mechanism of AV valve closure
the pulmonic valve closes when the blood pressure within the pulmonary trunk exceeds blood pressure within the right ventricle. the aortic valve closes when the blood pressure within the aorta exceeds the blood pressure within the left ventricle
briefly describe the mechanism of semilunar valve closure
pulmonic and aortic
when the ventricles contract which valves are open
tricuspid and mitral
when the ventricles contract which valves are closed
the tricuspid and mitral valves close when the blood pressure within the ventricles exceeds blood pressure within the atria
briefly describe the mechanism of av valve closure
the pulmonic valve closes when the blood pressure within the pulmonary trunk exceeds blood pressure within the right ventricle. the aortic valve closes when the bp within the aorta exceeds the bp within the left ventricle
briefly describe the mechanism of semilunar valve closure
diastole
th coronary arteries are perfused during which phase of the cardiac cycle
closed
is the aortic valve open or closed during diastole
coaptation
normal tight closure of valve cusps/leaflets is known as
pectinate muscles
raided muscle bundles in the anterior wall of the right atrium and the left and right auricles
increase force of atrial contraction without increasing heart mass
what is the function of pectinate muscles
trabeculae carnea
raised muscle bundles located in both ventricles
papillary muscles
cone shaped projections of myocardium (trabeculae carnae) located in both ventricles
tricuspid and mitral
which 2 heart valves are affected by the function of papillary muscles
ventricular myocardium contraction (as a unit)
what causes papillary muscle to contract
valve cusps/leaflets coapt normally because the papillary muscles are "pulling" on the chordae tendonae attached to the free border of the valve cusps/leaflets
what happens to the valves when the papillary muscles contract
coronary artery disease that caused mi
papillary muscle function is adversely affected by what heart disorder
chordae tendonae
these cord like structures extending form the free border of the tricuspid and mitral valve cusps/leaflets (distally)attach to the papillary muscles (proximally)
prevent relapse of valve cusps into atria (when the ventricles and papillary muscles contract the chordae tendonae are pulled tight preventing prolapse of valve cusps/leaflets into the atria)
what is the function of chordae tendonae
to insure one way blood flow
why is it important to have normal heart valve function
moderator band
this is an electrical short cut that conducts myocardial action potentials rapidly fron the inter ventricular septum to the papilllary muscles on the lateral side of the right ventricle
right ventricle
Contraction of the inter-ventricular septum facilitates ejection of blood from which heart chamber
fibrous skeleton
what is the name of the tissue that fuses the heart valves together
electrical insulator, prevent overstretching of hear valves, foundation for heart valve structure, insertion point for atrial and ventricular myocardium
list the 4 functions of fibrous skeleton
annulus
fibrous tissue ring that forms the base of each heart valve
conus arteriosus of the right ventricle
what is the only area of the ventricles that does not have trabeculae carnae
prevent bubble formation as blood flows rapidly and turbulently through the ventricles
what is the function of trabeculae carnae
crescent shape
what is the shape of the right ventricle
cone shaped
what is the shape of the left ventricle