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SOC 101 - Chapter 1
Terms in this set (46)
The scientific study of social behavior and human groups
A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture
A spatial or political unit of social organization that gives people a sense of belonging
A way of life for a particular society
How you view yourself and present yourself to others
The process of learning and passing on what is acceptable in society
The social rules about correct behavior
What we hold to be important, our beliefs and our goals
The parts people play in society
most evident in every society
Social standing/position in society
Whereby society defines expectations for certain role/behavior
A variety of differing views and opinions
Sociological groups with differing beliefs and values
What is the sociological imagination?
According to Mills, it is an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society AND the ability to view one's society as an outsider would
Body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation
Study of physical features of nature and the ways they interact and change
Study of social features of humans and the ways they interact and change
True or False: Sociologists do accept something as fact because "everyone knows it"
What is the sociological theory?
Set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior
What did August Comte do?
The coined the term of "sociology," he became interested in the twin problems of social order and social change
Who is Herbert Spencer?
He is called the second founder of sociology--studied "evolutionary" change in society--he was convinced that societies evolve from lower to high forms ("barbarian" to "civilized")
What is social darwinism?
As generations pass, he said, the most capable and intelligent ("the fittest") members of society survive
* his goals? interests?
Major goals: was to study how individual behavior is shaped by social forces--he was interested in the rates of suicide and how they varied from country to country--behavior can only be understood through a larger social context
What is the impact of social integration? What did Durkheim find?
He found that Protestants, males, and the unmarried killed themselves at a higher rate than did Catholics, Jews, females, and the married
Refers to a loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
Somebody that feels a deep sense of moral obligation and is willing to sacrifice for the group's well being
* biggest contribution? what did he theorize?
His study of the rise of capitalism--to understand behavior, we must learn the subjective meanings people attach to their actions
* what did he believe?
He believed that the key to human history is class conflict--believed that an entire system of economic, social, and political relationships had been established to maintain the power and dominance of the owners over the works
What are the two social classes established by Marx?
Bourgeoisie & proletariat
W.E.B. Du Bois
-First Black to receive a doctorate from Harvard
-Believed in granting of full political rights to Blacks
-Challenged the status quo
-Helped to fund the NAACP
What do macro theories focus on?
Theories of society (structural functionalism, conflict theory)
What do micro theories focus on?
Social psychological theories (symbolic interaction)
What is the functionalist perspective?
It emphasizes that parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability-viewed society as a network with connected parts in which others help to maintain the system as a whole
Manifest functions of the Functionalist perspective
Institutions are open, stated, conscious functions that are involve intended, recognized, consequences of an aspect of society
Latent functions of the Functionalist perspective
Unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution
Dysfunctions of the Functionalist perspective
Elements or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or disrupt its stability
Assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension among competing groups
Symbolic interactionist perspective - who is the sociologist behind this?
George Herbert Mead--symbolic interactionists view symbol-things that we attach meaning as the basis of social life
People attach meanings to each other's words and actions
What is the definition in which we find ourselves in terms of finding meanings within life?
Definition of the situation
People are seen as theatrical performers
Gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap or where they diverge
Use of the discipline of sociology with the intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
Facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions
Worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas
Social inequality: the significance
Condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
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