This is when habituation has been set, then a change in surrounding stimuli (environment) or addition of stimuli causes recovery of response to a stimulus. EX: driving then exiting off a ramp onto a new highway
Associative learning ( two different types)
creation of a pairing, or association, either between two different stimuli or between a behavior and a response.
a normally neutral stimulus that would not incite any "innate" response, now causes a reflexive response through association.
B. F Skinner
father of behaviorism, (theory that all behaviors are conditioned)
Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
-PR: means that something is added to continue the behavior (money) -NR: means that something is removed and the behavior is continued (loud music)
avoidance learning vs escape learning
-avoidance learning: remove the unpleasantness of something that already exists (aspirin for HA) -escape learning: try to escape something negative that is yet to happen in the future (earning a low score on MCAT)
Positive punishment and negative punishment
-PP: the addition of somethin to stop a behavior (beating with whip) -NP: the removal of something to stop a behavior (take away x-box)
Reinforcement schedules: FR, VR, FI, VI
-FR: award after specific number of performances of that behavior -VR: award after variable performances (Very Rapid, Very Resistant) -FI: award after a fixed time -VI: award after different wait times
-Neurons in the frontal and parietal lobes of cerebral cortex fire. -play a role in emotion and mimicking behavior
Automatic processing vs controlled processing
-taking in information without thinking about it -taking in information with effort, challenging yourself, and thinking outside of what you are reading/learning
Semantic, acoustic and visual encoding.
-information is put into meaningful context -information is stored into how it sound -information is visualized
Method of loci
memorizing something by creating a visualized story
getting the item of memorization and paring it with a number that rhymes