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The given vocabulary and definitions for chapter 10 of Modern Biology by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston


describes a microorganism or virus that causes disease and that is highly infectious


the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another


virus that infects bacteria


in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base


a five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides

Nitrogenous Base

an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA


a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine


a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine

Base-pairing Rules

the rules stating that in DNA cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine and that in RNA cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with uracil

Complementary Base Pair

the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand; adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine

Base Sequence

the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA

DNA Replication

the process of making a copy of DNA


an enzyme that separates DNA strands

Hershey and Chase

who found that all of the viral DNA and little of the protein had entered E coli cells


who concluded that DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria


realized through experiments with rats that heated bacteria can transfer genetic information to other bacteria

Replication fork

a Y-shaped point that results when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated

sugar, phosphate nitrogenous base

Name three parts of a nucleotide

DNA replication

the process of a DNA molecule making a copy of itself

DNA-> RNA->protein

What's the flow of genetic information

RNA contains ribose not deoxyribose
uracil not thymine
RNA is single strand DNA-double
RNA is shorter than DNA

List the four ways in which the structure of RNA differs from DNA


single uncoiled changed that carries genetic information from nucleus to cytosol


The type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis


binds to the mRNA and uses the instructions to assemble the amino acids in the correct order.

1. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of a specific gene
2.DNA strands separate
3. RNA polymerase adds complementary RNA nucleotides to newly formed RNA
4. RNA reaches termination detaches

Main steps of transcription


(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

protein synthesis

the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA


region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

termination signal

A specific sequence of nucleotides that mark the end of a gene.


three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid


group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA


the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information


method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new


copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

DNA polymerase

an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule


during ___ DNA acts as a template for directing synthesis of RNA

genetic code

the ___ identifies the specific amino acids coded for by each MRNA


_____ begins with the separation of the DNA strands by helices


DNA polymerase form new strands by adding_____ nucleotides to each of the original strands

G& C A&T

hydrogen bonding between which pairs

covalent bonds

Nucleotides along each DNA are linked by____

hydrogen bonds

Complementary nitrogenous bases are linked by ____

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