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43 terms

eddy ch. 10 Holt, Rinehart, and Winston Modern Biology Vocabulary Chapter 10

The given vocabulary and definitions for chapter 10 of Modern Biology by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
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Virulent
describes a microorganism or virus that causes disease and that is highly infectious
Transformation
the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another
Bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
Nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
Deoxyribose
a five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
Nitrogenous Base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
Purine
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
Pyrimidine
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine
Base-pairing Rules
the rules stating that in DNA cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine and that in RNA cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with uracil
Complementary Base Pair
the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand; adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine
Base Sequence
the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA
DNA Replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
Helicase
an enzyme that separates DNA strands
Hershey and Chase
who found that all of the viral DNA and little of the protein had entered E coli cells
Avery
who concluded that DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria
Griffith
realized through experiments with rats that heated bacteria can transfer genetic information to other bacteria
Replication fork
a Y-shaped point that results when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated
sugar, phosphate nitrogenous base
Name three parts of a nucleotide
DNA replication
the process of a DNA molecule making a copy of itself
DNA-> RNA->protein
What's the flow of genetic information
RNA contains ribose not deoxyribose
uracil not thymine
RNA is single strand DNA-double
RNA is shorter than DNA
List the four ways in which the structure of RNA differs from DNA
mRNA
single uncoiled changed that carries genetic information from nucleus to cytosol
tRNA
The type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis
rRNA
binds to the mRNA and uses the instructions to assemble the amino acids in the correct order.
1. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of a specific gene
2.DNA strands separate
3. RNA polymerase adds complementary RNA nucleotides to newly formed RNA
4. RNA reaches termination detaches
Main steps of transcription
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
promotor
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
termination signal
A specific sequence of nucleotides that mark the end of a gene.
codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
genome
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
semi-conservative
method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new
replication
copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
transcription
during ___ DNA acts as a template for directing synthesis of RNA
genetic code
the ___ identifies the specific amino acids coded for by each MRNA
Replication
_____ begins with the separation of the DNA strands by helices
complementary
DNA polymerase form new strands by adding_____ nucleotides to each of the original strands
G& C A&T
hydrogen bonding between which pairs
covalent bonds
Nucleotides along each DNA are linked by____
hydrogen bonds
Complementary nitrogenous bases are linked by ____