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The Endocrine System

The quizlet for the endocrine system. This test is gonna be impossible.
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Endocrine Cells
Glandular secretory cells that release their secretions into the extracellular fluid
Hormones
Chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported by the bloodstream to reach target cells
Peptide Hormones
Hormones consisting of chains of amino acids
Steroid Hormones
Lipid hormones that are derived from cholesterol
Prostaglandins
Hormones that coordinate local cellular activities.
Target Cells
The cell that is the destination of a released hormones
Receptor
A sensor in the cell membrane, or in the cytoplasm that allows the cell to respond to the presence of a hormone
First Messenger
The hormone that binds to the receptor in the cell membrane
Second Messenger
The substance in the cytoplasm that responds to the activation of a receptor in the membrane
G Protein
An enzyme that is coupled to a membrane receptor
Cyclic AMP
One of the most important second messengers. Its appearance depends on the presence of Adenylate Cyclase.
Adenylate Cyclase
Converts ATP into a ring shaped molecule of cAMP
Regulatory Hormones
Special hormones that control the activity of endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary.
Releasing Hormones
Stimulate the production of one or more hormones in the anterior pituitary.
Inhibiting Hormones
Inhibit the production of one or more hormones in the anterior pituitary.
Portal System
The entire system of portal veins
Hypophyseal Portal System
The Portal system in the hypothalamus
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Targets the thyroid gland and triggers the release of thyroid hormones
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Stimulates the release of several hormones by the adrenal cortex.
Pituitary Gland
This gland secretes nine different hormones, all hormones use cAMP as a second messenger.
Infundibulum
Slender stalk connecting the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.
Anterior Pituitary Gland
This gland contains endocrine cells surrounded by an extensive capillary network called the hypophyseal portal system.
Gonadotropins
Hormones that regulate the activities of the male and female sex organs
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Promotes follicle and ova development in females and stimulates secretion of estrogens.
Luteinizing Hormone
Induces ovulation and promotes secretion of estrogens and progestins.
Progestins
Hormones that prepare the body for pregnancy.
Androgens
Male sex hormones produced by the testes
Prolactin
Works with other hormones to produce breast milk by the mammary glands
Growth Hormone
Stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis.
Somatomedins
Hormones produced by liver cells in response to the presence of growth hormone
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
Stimulates the pigment cells in the skin increasing the amount of pigment produced.
Posterior Pituitary Gland
This gland contains axons from two different groups of neurons located within the hypothalamus.
Antidiuretic Hormone
Hormone released in response to such stimuli as a rise in the concentration of electrolytes in the blood. Reduces the amount of water lost in the urine.
Oxytocin
Hormone that stimulates smooth muscle contractions in the uterus, and pushes milk out of the mammary glands.
Thyroid Gland
Gland that lies anterior to the trachea, and just inferior to the thyroid cartilage.
Thyroid Cartilage
Forms most of the anterior surface of the larynx covers the thyroid.
Thyroid follicles
Spheres lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium in the thyroid gland
Thyroxine
Hormone secreted by the thyroid contains four iodine atoms, makes up 90% of thyroid secretions.
Triiodothyronine
Related more potent molecule than thyroxine containing three iodine atoms
Calorigenic Effect
When the metabolic rate raises, and more heat is produced.
C cells
Endocrine cells sandwiched between the follicle cells and their basement membrane. Produce calcitonin.
Calcitonin
Hormone that helps regulate calcium ion concentrations in body fluids.
Parathyroid Glands
Glands embedded in the posterior surfaces of the thyroid gland.
Chief Cells
Cells that produce parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid Hormone
Hormone that stimulates osteoclasts, inhibits the bone building functions of osteoblasts.
Adrenal glands
Glands that sit on the top of the kidneys, has two sections
Adrenal Cortex
Yellowish in color due to presence of lipids, part of the adrenal gland
Corticosteroids
Steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex.
Mineralocorticoids
Hormones that affect the electrolyte composition of body fluids.
Aldosterone
Stimulates the conservation of sodium ions by targeting cells that regulate the ionic composition of excreted fluids.
Glucocorticoids
Hormones that affect glucose metabolism
Cortisol, Corticosterone, Cortisone
The three glucocorticoids in "ex, ex, ex" fashion
Adrenal Androgens
Sex hormones produced in both sexes by the adrenal cortex
Adrenal Medulla
Reddish brown part of the adrenal glands
Epinephrine
Hormone responsible for the fight or flight response
Norepinephrine
Hormone responsible for the Anti-fight or flight response
Pineal Gland
Gland lying in the posterior portion of the roof of the third ventricle.
Melatonin
Hormone that inhibits reproductive function, antioxidant activity, and day/night cycles.
Pancreas
Organ that lies in the j-shaped loop between the stomach and the proximal portion of the small intestine.
Pancreatic Islets
Clusters of the endocrine pancreas
Alpha cells
Cells in the pancreas that produce glucagon
Beta cells
Cells in the pancreas that produce insulin
Insulin
Secreted when blood glucose levels go above normal
Glucagon
Secreted when blood glucose levels go below normal
Calcitriol
Hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to PTH.
Erythroipoietin
Hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels in kidney tissues.
Renin
Hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to a decrease in blood volume, pressure, or both.
Angiotensin II
Hormone released by the kidneys, stimulates production of aldosterone.
Thymus
Organ located in the mediastinum, posterior to the sternum, releases thymosins
Thymosins
Hormones released by the thymus, aid in lymphatic and immune defenses.
Interstitial Cells
Cells in the testes that produces androgens
Testosterone
Hormone produced by the testes, most important androgen
Inhibin
Hormone secreted by the testes, inhibits secretion of FSH
Follicles
Structures in the ovaries in which ova develop under stimulation by FSH.
Estrogens
Hormones produced by the cells surrounding the ova that support the maturation of the ova and the growth of the uterine wall.
Corpus Luteum
The follicular cells reorganize into a ______ after ovulation
Progesterone
Hormone that accelerates the movement of fertilized eggs along the uterine tubes.
Leptin
Hormone secreted by the adipose tissue, regulates appetite.
Resistin
Hormone secreted by adipose tissue, reduces insulin sensitivity
Antagonistic
When two hormones have opposite effects
Additive
When two hormone have the same effect and add to a greater effect
Synergistic
When two hormones have a greater effect than their sum
Integrative
When two hormones have complementary effects
Stress
Any environmental event that takes the body out of homeostasis
General Adaptation Syndrome
Process of stress response that happens in three steps
Alarm Phase, Resistance Phase, Exhaustion Phase
Three phases of G.A.S.