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IB U.S History Chapter 21
Terms in this set (33)
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
From Austria-Hungary. He and his wife visit the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. The Gen. warned him not to come b/c he would get killed. Conspirators, members of the Black Hands, waited in the streets for him to kill him b/c they wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungary and to become part of a large Serbian kingdom. Gavrilo Princep eventually succeeded in shooting both the archduke and his wife.
part of the black hand, kills archduke franz ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne in an attempt to further serbian nationalism
German submarines used in World War I; they sank many Allied ships around the British Isles. They were responsible for the sinking of the HMS Lusitania and the Sussex.
The Lusitania was a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I against the Germans.
A promise to change the naval warfare policy by Germany to the US. Germany had instituted a policy of intensified sub warfare, allowing armed merchant ships, but not passenger ships, to be torpedoed without warning. Despite this restriction, a ferry, the Sussex, was torpedoed without warning. It prompted Wilson to declare that if Germany were to continue this practice, the US would declare war.
A coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917, to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt, at the height of World War I. The telegram instructed the ambassador to approach the Mexican government with a proposal to form a military alliance against the United States. It was intercepted and decoded by the British and its contents hastened the entry of the United States into World War I.
John J. Pershing
Pershing was an American general who led troops against "Pancho" Villa in 1916. He took on the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 which was one of the longest lasting battles- 47 days in World War I. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.
American Expeditionary Force
American force of 14,500 that landed in France in June 1917 under the command of General John Pershing. Both women and blacks served during the war, mostly under white officers
1917. The second stage of the Russian Revolution in November 1917 when Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party seized power and established a communist state. The first stage had occurred the previous February when more moderate revolutionaries overthrew the Russian Czar
Battle of Château-Thierry
(1918) The first significant engagement of American troops in World War I—and, indeed, in any European war. To weary French soldiers, the American doughboys were an image of fresh and gleaming youth. (758)
Battle of the Argonne Forest
On September 26, an American force of over 1 million soldiers advanced against the Germans in the Argonne Forest. After 42 days, the force had helped push the Germans back toward their own border and had cut the enemy's major supply lines to the front.
a nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI
War Industries Board
Created in July 1917, the War Industries Board controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations It was intended to restore economic order and to make sure the United States was producing enough at home and abroad.
National War Labor Board
The board was a composition of representatives from business and labor designed to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. It settled any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war efforts.
It was a government organization created to stir up a patriotic spirit which encouraged people to voluntarily sacrifice some of their own goods for the war. It helped the war effort by helping create a food surplus to feed America and its allies.
Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays." The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Committee on Public Information
was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms, and served to censor the press. The committee helped spur up the anti-German feeling in America as well as motivated Americans to support war against Germany once declared.
Espionage Act of 1917
enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.
Sedition Act of 1918
Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.
During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
League of Nations
In 1919, after the war, Wilson proposed it in the 14th point of his peace plan. He envisioned it as an Assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. The US voted not to join the League because in doing so, it would have taken away our self-determination, and Congress could not decide whether to go to war or not.
Treaty of Versailles
was created to solve problems made by World War I. Germany was forced to accept the treaty. It was composed of only four of the original points made by President Woodrow Wilson. The treaty punished Germany and did nothing to stop the threat of future wars. It maintained the pre-war power structure.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
What factors led the United States to enter World War I?
How did U.S. military entry affect the course of the war?
WWI heightened anxieties about who was a "true" American. What groups were singled out in particular and why?
In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles embody - or fail to embody - Wilson's Fourteen Points?
Historians often say that the U.S won the war but lost peace. What do they mean? Do you agree?
What factors led the United States to enter World War I, despite the desire of so many Americans, including the president, to stay out of the war?
The United States entered the war because of the Germans' decision to resume the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, and the so-called "Zimmerman telegram," intercepted by the British, in which Germany floated the idea of an alliance with Mexico
How did U.S. military entry into World War I affect the course of the war?
The entry of the US military into WW1 brought massive amounts of fresh American soldiers that were eager to fight that outnumbered the enemy's forces and a flood of supplies (trades, loans, military equipment, food) which allowed the Allies to defeat Germany who signed an armistice once realized that there was no hope once a country that would continue to fight and prolong the war had entered.
What were the different effects of African Americans' , Mexican Americans' , and women's civilian mobilization during World War I?
They all replaced millions of men fighting in the from, it cantributed to the economy and production of weapons neede in the war.
In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles embody- or fail to embody - Wilson's Fourteen points?
Wilson's Fourteen Points emphasized a lasting postwar peace and basic liberal ideals. This included the League of Nations; however, the Senate didn't support this because they feared American power would be diminished by international cooperation.
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