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IB U.S History Chapter 22
Terms in this set (46)
The Red Scare
erupted in the early 1920's. The American public was scared that communism would come into the US. Left-winged supporters were suspected. This fear of communism helped businessman who used it to stop labor strikes.
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General in 1920s; earned the title of the "fighting Quaker" by his excess of zeal in rounding up suspects of Red Scare; ultimately totaled about six thousand; This drive to root out radicals was redoubled in June 1919, when a bomb shattered his home
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Sacco & Vanzetti
Murder trial in Massachusetts (1920-1927); two anarchist Italian immigrants are put on trial for the robbery and murder of a paymaster and a guard at a shoe factory, found guilty, and sentenced to death after attempts at retrial failed.
Designed to appeal to new women voters, this act provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and expanded the role of government in family welfare.
leader of the National Woman's Party and the Congressional Union, campaigned for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution and led protests
1921, Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money. Became a symbol of the scandals that occured when Harding was president.
term used to describe the effort of the United States to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
the practice of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, import, export, sale, and consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
The American Civil Liberties Union. It defends and preserves the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
1925- a highly publicized trial where John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. Scopes was prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan and defended by Clarence Darrow; Scopes was convicted but the verdict was later. Displayed the fundamentalism prevalent in rural areas at the time
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible.
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
National Origins Act
1929- It restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. (set up ratios) of that national origin in 1890, which severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely.
The second Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1915 by William J. Simmons. A hate group that was against, communism, immigrants, blacks; and they advocated white supremacy, white nationalism, and nativism. Their mission was to keep America American. They used terrorism upon minority groups, or groups they disagreed with to subdue them.
black artistic movement in New York City in the 1920s, when writers, poets, painters, and musicians came together to express feelings and experiences, especially about the injustices of Jim Crow; leading figures of the movement included Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Duke Ellington, Zora Neale Hurston, and Langston Hughes.
A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance in poems such as "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"
Zora Neal Hurston
Black writer who wanted to save African American folklore. She traveled all across the South collecting folk tales, songs & prayers of Black southerners. Her book was called Mules and Men.
A type of music that originated in the Deep South and slowly worked its way up the Mississippi river. It was closley related to slave songs. Known as the first entirely American form of music
Jazz musician known for his virtuosic skills on the cornet and trumpet. Armstrong popularized the scat style of singing and remains one of jazz's most important and influential musicians. He was a member of King Oliver's band in the 1920s, and he formed several bands of his own, namely the Hot Fives and Sevens.
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. He thought that blacks should look out for their own interests without involvement from white people.
the black working class's first mass movement; Under the leadership of the Jamaican born, Marcus Garvey, the UNIA built racial pride; challenged white political and cultural hegemony; and championed black separatism(United Negro Improvement Association)
Philosophy based on the belief that Africans share common bonds and are a unified people. Adopted this to break from colonial rule.
A phrase made popular by American author Ernest Hemingway in his first published novel The Sun Also Rises. Often it is used to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and other parts of Europe, some after military service in the First World War. Figures identified with the "Lost Generation" include authors and poets F. Scott Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, Waldo Peirce, and John Dos Passos. It also refers to the time period from the end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression. More generally, the term is used for the generation of young people coming of age in the United States during and shortly after World War I
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Expatriate American writer who epitomized the Jazz Age. His novels include The Great Gatsby (1925) and Tender Is the Night (1934); focused on personal alienation; wrote This Side of Paradise in which he depicted a world occupied by a generation grown up to find all Gods dead, all wars fought, all faith in man shaken. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
During the 1920s large numbers of Americans were able to purchase relatively expensive automobiles, appliances, and radios through the relatively new innovation. A culture in which personal worth and identity reside not in the people themselves, but in the products with which they surround themselves.
developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits.
the movie capitol of the world. It enjoyed many advantages. Center of the entertainment film industry in the 1920's
a young woman in the 1920s who flaunted her unconventional conduct and dress
an American actress who rose to stardom in the silent film era of the 1920s; her acting artistry and high spirits made her the premier flapper; leading sex symbol of the roaring twenties
Coined by Joseph Nye Jr.- A state's ability to attract allies through the legitimacy of its policies and values.
What factors contributed to antiblack violence, labor defeats, and the Red Scare in the postwar period? What connections might we draw among these events?
Antiblack violence stemmed from the African Americans determined to achieve citizenship rights because many fought in the war and had pride in themselves as a men and as American citizens. The war effort also increased the size and power of labor unions, but when workers tried to maintain these standards after the war, employers cut wages and fired union employees. In Adkins v. Children's hospital, the Court voided a minimum wage for women workers in DC.
What were the economic goals of U.S foreign policymakers in the 1920s?
Business grew larger, some of these jobs improved people's standard of living, businesses & their bosses made huge profits but workers did not.
What was the Republican vision of "normalcy," and how did the Harding and Coolidge administrations see to realize it?
Republicans ceased to promise progressive reforms and instead aimed to settle into traditional patterns of government- return to big business, pro-business, anti-tax, and anti-regulation.
How did the rise of the KKK in the 1920s reflect the larger patterns in development in American society and politics?
At first, they were largely concerned with intimidating AA and it remained small, obscure, and almost entirely southern. BUT after WW1, concern with AA became secondary to concern about Catholics, Jews, and foreigners through the form of physical intimidation, arson and economic boycotts and it spread rapidly to other areas.
Along what lines did Americans find themselves divided in the 1920s?
How did the Great Migration lead to the Harlem Renaissance?
The Great Migration lead to the Harlem Renaissance, the explosion of black culture through music and art. Jazz was the most famous product of the Harlem Renaissance and predominately black musicians spread jazz to cities.
What criticisms of mainstream culture did modernist American writers offer in the 1920s?
"The Lost Generation" Criticizing the brutality of war. Hemmingway & Fitzgerald. Gertrude Stein. T.S. Eliott. Exploring the dark side of the human psyche.
How did the radio, automobile, and Hollywood movies exemplify the opportunities of the 1920s consumer culture?
The radio allowed for advertisement for businesses, was way to spread information quickly and served as a form of entertainment. The automobile created a surplus of jobs, stimulated steel, petroleum, chemical, rubber and glass production, and lead to the popular trend of vacationing. The downside of the car was that Americans typically bought them on credit and this created risks for buyers and the economy. Hollywood movies played in movie palaces attracted middle-class and working-class audiences and actors/actresses set national trends.
What factors contributed to the economic boom of the 1920s?
were the Republican government's policies of Isolationism and Protectionism, the Mellon Plan, the Assembly line and the mass production of consumer goods such as the Ford Model T Automobile and luxury labor saving devices and access to easy credit on installment plans.
What domestic and global factors helped cause the Great Depression?
The stock market fell, industrial production, and construction decreased, price for crops and other raw materials fell by half, and unemployment rates reached 24 percent. A drop in consumer spending deepened the depression because Americans didn't have the money to spend.
Before World War I, women didn't have full voting rights, but they had considerable success as reformers. After the war, they could vote, but their proposals met defeat. How might we account for this apparent contradiction?
Women were successful in gaining reforms before WWI because during the progressive era, reformers wanted radical changes in living and working conditions to be implemented for all. Although women couldn't vote, their ideas were adhered to. After the war, women achieved the right to vote but many proposals met defeat such as the Equal Rights Amendment stating that "men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States. Opponents disagreed with proposals such as these because they would undo the laws that were passed to protect women from workplace abuses. Women were viewed as vulnerable and the desire for equality in all aspects was resisted by man.
What choices did Americans face in the elections of 1920 and 1924, and what directions did they choose?
In election of 1920, Democrat James Cox ran against Republican Warren Harding. Harding won in a landslide, beginning an era of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932. During the election of 1924, Republican candidate Calvin Coolidge called for limited government and tax cuts for business. He won presidency but faced Democratic Candidate John Davis and Progressivist Candidate Robert La Follett.
How did debates over alcohol use, the teaching of evolution, immigration, anti-Semitism, and racism evolve in the 1920s?
How did the Great Migration lead to flourishing African American culture, politics, and intellectual life, and what form did these activities take?
Issues of cultural identity as well as social and political tension in a segregated culture gave rise to a flowering of the arts in Harlem.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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