Study sets, textbooks, questions
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Terms in this set (62)
systematic, rigorous, critical investigation that aims to answer questioning about nursing phenomena
Evidence based practice
collection, evaluation, and integration of valid research evidence combined with clinical expertise and an understanding of patient and family values and preferences to inform clinical decision making
Quality Improvement (QI)
systematic use of data to monitor the outcomes of care processes as well as the use of improvement methods to design and test changes in practice for the purpose of continuously improving the quality and safety of health care systems
process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report's content for scientific merit and application to practice
knowledgeable consumers of research, who can evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of research evidence and use existing standards to determine the merit and readiness of research for use in clinical practice
the study of research questions about human experiences. Often conducted in the natural settings, and uses data that are words or text, rather than numerical, in order to describe the experiences that are being studied
the process of testing relationships, differences, and cause and effect interactions among and between variables. These processes are tested with either hypotheses and or research questions. data is numerical rather than words or text.
Level of Evidence
a rating system for judging the strength of a study's design - LoBiondo Wood pyramid
the extent to which a study's design, implementation, and analysis minimizes bias
the number of studies that have evaluated the research question, including overall sample size across studies, as well as the strength of the findings from the data analyses
the degree to which studies that have similar and different designs, but investigate the same research question, report similar findings
short, comprehensive synopsis or summary of a study at the beginning of an article
summation and assessment of a group of research studies that test a similar research question (qualitative review of quantitative studies) - includes Integrative Reviews for our classes purpose
Systematic summary using statistical techniques to assess and combine studies of the same design to obtain a precise estimate of effect. (quantitative review of quantitative studies)
integrates qualitative research findings on a topic and is based on comparative analysis and interpretive synthesis (qualitative review of qualitative studies)
systematically developed statements or recommendations that serve as a guide for practitioners. Consensus based on experts vs evidence based using published research findings
systematic and critical appraisal of the most important literature on a topic. Key step in the research process that provides the basis of a research study
articles, books, or other documents written by the person who conducted the study or developed the theory
material written by persons other than those who conducted the original research study or developed a particular theory. Summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. (example-textbooks)
distillation of primary and secondary sources (example -handbooks)
6S Hierarchy of Pre-appraised Evidence
model developed to assist clinicians in their search for the highest level of evidence. Used to efficiently identify the highest level of evidence to facilitate your search on your clinical question or problem. Move downward along the pyramid from fastest way to attain knowledge (systems) to slowest (original studies)
top of the 6S hierarchy of pre-appraised evidence pyramid. (computerized decision support systems) Specific patient data can be entered and then matched against a knowledge base to generate patient specific recommendations or assessments
2nd level (in descending order) of the 6S hierarchy of pre-appraised evidence pyramid. includes clinical practice guidelines and electronic evidence based textbooks. Summaries about specific conditions are updated regularly.
Synopses of syntheses
3rd level (in descending order) of the 6S hierarchy of pre-appraised evidence pyramid. provides a pre-appraised summary of a systematic review
4th level (in descending order) of the 6S hierarchy of the pre-appraised evidence pyramid. Systematic reviews. Can include qualitative studies too.
Synopses of studies
5th level (in descending order) of the 6S hierarchy of pre-appraised evidence pyramid.synopsis of a single study that has been appraised by an expert who provides an overview and appraisal of the study (single study). (example - evidence-based abstraction journal)
bottom of the 6S hierarchy of pre-appraised evidence pyramid. Addresses single studies that have been pre-appraised. Process of appraising is conducted by a single expert. (original article published in journals)
Peer reviewed (refereed) journals
panel of internal and external reviewers who review submitted manuscripts for possible publication
used to find journal sources of research and conceptual articles on a variety of topics
defines the relationships between words or groups of words in your literature search (examples- AND, OR, NOT)
Research Question (Problem Statement)
presents the idea that is to be examined in the study and is the foundation for the research study
attempt to answer the research question
set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that provide a systematic view of a phenomenon
Any characteristic of a person or entity with CHANGEABLE values that is examined in research
has the presumed effect on the dependent variable (manipulated by the researcher)
varies with a change in the independent variable. (not manipulated) "variable of interest". Response, behavior, or outcome the researcher wants to explain, predict or control.
Well defined set that has certain properties - draw sample from here
Measurable variables of the study must lend themselves to observation, measurement, and analysis.
Aims or objectives the investigator hopes to achieve with the research.
Research hypothesis/scientific hypothesis
statement about the expected relationship of variables
Statistical (null, N0) hypothesis
states there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables
specifies the expected direction of the relationship between independent and dependent variables (>,~,<)
Non Directional hypothesis
existence of a relationship between the variables, but does not specify the direction of the relationship.
Clinical Questions (PICOT questions)
population, intervention, comparison, outcome, (timeframe)
Dictionary definition. Conveys the general meaning of the variable/concept.
Specifies how the variable/concept will be measured and observed during the investigation.
Set of interrelated concepts that represents an image of a phenomenon. Relationship between key concepts and variables on which a study can be developed. Generally includes a visual representation of concepts and relationships.
Results, conclusions, interpretations, recommendations, and implications for future research and nursing practice.
Problems with the study's validity, bias, or study weaknesses.
Investigator's suggestions for the study's application to practice, theory, and further research.
Quantifies the uncertainty of a statistic or the probability value range within which a population parameter is expected to lie.
inferences that the data are representative of similar phenomena in a population beyond the study's sample
estimate of how large of difference there is between intervention and control groups in summarized studies
Forest plot (blobbogram)
graphically depicts the results of analyzing a number of studies
critical appraisal skills programmed to assess quality, quantity, and consistency of specific study designs
appraisal of guidelines, research, and evaluation to evaluate the applicability of a guideline to practice
probability that the observed difference happened by chance. Used when we wish to see how likely a hypothesis is true
Multiple testing adjustment
adjust the P value to keep the overall chance of coming to the wrong conclusion at a certain level (usually 5%)
(abstract), introduction, methods, results, discussion
components include - title, purpose, hypothesis, results, conclusion.
Type 1 error
part of hypothesis testing. When the researcher concludes there is a relationship between variables when in reality there is no true relationship.
Type II error
part of hypothesis testing. When the researcher concludes there is no relationship between variables when in reality there is a true relationship.
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