The Transformation of the West: 1860-1900
Terms in this set (63)
Describe the Native Americans during this time.
Their cultures were in crisis.
What Indian tribes were involved in this part of history?
The Plains Indians and the Amer-Indians: Sioux, Cheyenne, Crow, Comanche, Dakota, & Shoshoni Indians.
What was the most sacred animal of the West?
How many Amer-Indians lived out west?
Between 5 and 15 million
Describe the "Great Plains."
Really hot summers and really cold winters.
How many buffalo roamed the west?
15 to 20 million
What happened to the Buffalo?
When whites came they hunted and diminished the buffalo; #'s dropped to about a thousand
Why/how did the reservations shrink in size?
When people came to the West for different reasons, the gov't found value in what they found and came to take advantage the land.
What was the Native American view of land?
They believed land could not be owned. Whites, however, believed that private property was the key to wealth.
What were some of the reasons for white settlement in the west?
The east got crowded, new land, no opportunity in the east, ranching, farming, mining, cheap/free land, etc.
What brought a lot of the pioneers into the "Old West?"
Between 1860-1890 the Old West grew from 1million - 9million inhabitants.
What was the Homestead Act 1862?
-passed by Lincoln
-pay an entry fee and stake a claim on lands of the Midwest for a minimum of 5 years
-live in your own dwellings and be productive
-receive a permanent ownership of the land
What did Railroads replace?
Wagon trains...by this time the US had the longest railroad in the world
What did the Transcontinental Rail Road (TRR) connect?
The Eastern US to the Western US; built by the Union Pacific with limited federal funding
Blacks who left the South due to ravaged land/discrimination to find a new life; refers to the Biblical book of EXODUS
Sprouted up in areas of the Midwest, especially in mining towns
List some famous boomtowns.
-San Francisco, CA
What was life like for women in the Old West?
Pray for Professor Jones' father who is having surgery.
Virginia City, NV
went from a boomtown to a ghost town
The Sioux Wars (1876-1877)
The Sioux's land was eyballed by the fed gov't and they were asked to leave the land a decade in advance.
a medicine man/shaman; was not present @ the Battle of Little Bighorn
He was only 21 years old when he was promoted to General during the Civil War due to officer shortage. He was brought down to the rank of Colonel after the war but still arrogantly wore his General stripes.
What happened during the Battle of Little Bighorn?
-Custer seriously underestimated the numbers of the Native Americans
-he took only 300 men and ran into an alliance of Sioux Indians (2,000-3,000)
Who led the Native forces @ Little Bighorn? How'd he die?
Crazy Horse; he was shot in the back in the winter of1877
Describe the results of the battle of Little Bighorn.
-The Indians won
-every American man lost their life, including Custer
-Indians suffered major casualties
What happened to the Indians after the battle of Little Bighorn?
Led by Sitting Bull, they tried to go to Canada because there were more Americans coming. But it was very cold and they came back. They had to become used to the concept of money so Sitting Bull got a job @ Buffalo Bill's circus reenacting the Battle of Little Bighorn (inaccurately losing each time)
a gov't supported idea of integrating the Indians
What book did Helen Hunt Jackson write in 1881?
A Century of Dishonor - about the Indians and how we should treat them
The Dawes Act 1887
The act provided for the division of tribally held lands into individually-owned parcels and opening "surplus" lands to settlement by non-Indians and development by railroads.
How did the Native Americans react to assimilation?
The gov't gave them their own private lands for free but they had a difficult time understanding the concept of land ownership and farming.
Where did Sitting Bull die?
He died @ the Battle of Wounded Knee; the Natives performed a Ghost Dance before the battle
Describe the Ghost Dance and the Battle of Wounded Knee 1890
American forces misinterpreted the dance and open fired; a massacre NOT a battle
Geronimo and the Apaches
Geronimo was a leader among the Apache Indians; the term "Geronimo" became a popular word for those who took big risks; they'd shout GERONIMO
Who were the Apache Indians?
-hunters and gatherers
-He didn't like being confined to one reservation or one place
-he turned to thieving and raiding
-him and the Apaches attacked US and Mexican settlements
-bounty was placed on his head
-US hunted him down but wasn't able to catch him
-he was eventually captured and put on a reservation
-he would escape and raid again
-This cycle went on five different times from 1866-1886 until officials put him in FL so he couldn't raid again; went from NV to FL to OK (death)
The Cattle Industry
-grew and became a big business
-after the Civil War there was a meat shortage in the east part of the US (went to TX to find beef and free cattle)
-Thousands of longhorns roamed the wild west ($20 a piece then; $1,000 today)
-Cowboy organizations formed and rounded up the cattle and drove them to the East (long drive)
The Truth about Cowboys
-more African American or Latino cowboys than whites
-difficult to take care of cattle because they're dumb and they drove them thousands of miles in rain or shine and they're were cattle rustlers (cattle thieves)
-rough life, no good pay
Wyatt Earp, Nat Love, Buffalo Bill
Calamity Jane (wore pants) and Annie Oakley
The west offered women suffrage before the east
Wyoming elected the first female governor
The end of the Cattle Frontier
-railroad expansion out west diminished the need to drive cattle from Dallas to D.C.
-more farmers and less open range
-more sheep ranching than cattle ranching
-brutal winters; loss of livestock and $
Settling of the Great Plains
-settlers flock Westward to farm
-3 big cash crops (corn, potatoes, and wheat)
-400 million western acres settled from 1860-1890. The railroads and wagon trains brought many to the west
People who took advantage of the Homestead Act
people who would "squat" on physically unoccupied land that was owned by others
glorified Squatters in Oklahoma
former slaves that moved west; got their name from the Biblical book of the same name and from the fact that the West was dusty
Who were the key villains of the old west?
-Frank and Jessie James (Confederate ruffians)
-Billy the Kid
What was one of the biggest crimes in the West that was worthy of hanging?
Cattle Rustling (theft)
What were living standards in the west like?
-wild animals (coyote freely wander into a house)
Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 and 1890.
The acts provided each state (East and West) with thousands of acres of Federal land for the purpose of establishing public colleges that focused on agricultural studies. 69 colleges were funded/est. by these acts
Key inventions that made farming possible.
-irrigation systems / windmills
Farmers and the Populist Movement
-Farmers unite to address common problems
Why were farmers growing into great debt?
-food was spoiling due to time that was taken to transport food
-need of railroads for faster transportation
-railroads started taking advantage of farmers
Why did farmers demand inflated money?
-all the farmers noticed the advantage that was being taken of them by the railroad companies
-started to make demands and form unions
Why did farmers have trouble with the railroads?
The "Grange": farmers that were unhappy with their plight with the RR Companies
the idea that money can be backed up with another precious metal beside gold...silver
Describe the Presidential Election of 1896.
-William Jennings Bryan was a Populist and former democrat, fundemental Christian; ran against Republican William McKinley; lost, solidified gold as the formal backing for American money
List 4 modern day US states that were major mining centers.
Alaska, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California
-colonized for a long time by Russia
-still dominated by the Russian Orthodox Church
-bought for $7 million
-gold found in the mountains
-oil found in 1901