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Botany Exam 1
Terms in this set (80)
What is science?
A body of knowledge about the natural universe
Conclusions regarding specific events are drawn from general principles.
Conclusions regarding general principles drawn from direct observation and experiment
One should prefer explanations that require the fewest extra assumptions in the absence of data.
Hume's problem of induction
No universal statement may ever be verified.
Said that we cannot know truth in an absolute sense, but we can eliminate falsehood.
How did Karl popper evade Hume's problem of induction ?
Because another hypothesis may predict the same experimental results.
Why should a hypothesis be falsifiable ?
What are the steps to the scientific method
1.Should be repeatable
2.Must eliminate variables not of interest
3.must include controls
4.must include replicates
How should one conduct an experiment?
1. Explains a general phenomena
2. Has been tested and not falsified
3. All other hypothesis have been eliminated
When does a hypothesis become a theory?
Who said observation is necessary to understand the. Natural world?
Who invented the scientific method?
Anything that you can observe
A falsifiable explanation of observations
A hypothesis that explains a general phenomena and has not been falsified
A relationship between two or more facts.
Properties that emerge through the interactions of parts of a system
The complexity of a system is greater than the sum complexity of its individual parts.
How do emergent properties explain the complexity of life
What elements are most comment in living matter?
Carbon forms the backbone of large complex molecules
Why is carbon so important?
Water in liquid form provides a medium in which molecules may interact
Why is water so important?
String of 20 amino acids
Structure of proteins
Metabolism, structure, etc.
Function of proteins
Double helix of nucleotides strands
Structure of DNA
Stores genetic information
Function of DNA
Structure of RNA
Assembles proteins, carries genetic info, carries amino acids
Function of RNA
Sugars and strings of sugars
Structure of carbohydrates
Energy storage and transfer
Function of carbohydrates
Diverse carbon compounds
Structure of lipids
Long term energy storage, membrane structure
Function of lipids
1. All organisms are made up of cells
2. Chemical reactions necessary for life take place in cells
3. All cells arise from only existing cells
4. Cells contain the hereditary information of the organism
What is cell theory?
Maintains shape of the cell
Function of the cell wall
Separates cells from the environment, mediates transport of substances in and out of the cell
Function of plasma membrane
Stores genetic info
Function of Nucleus
Function of Ribosomes
Site of photosynthesis
Function of Chloroplast
Site of respiration: sugar is converted into ATP
Function of Mitochondrion
Holds water and other waste
Function of Vacuoles
How the plasma membrane allows water and nutrients into the cell and waste out.
What does the fluid mosaic model explain?
Rough ER has ribosomes and smooth ER has no ribosomes
What is the difference between smooth and rough ER
Moves things around the cell and provides structure and shape
Function of cytoskeleton
Without water, plants cannot maintain turgor pressure
Why do plants wilt without water
Single chromosome that is circular
Have no nuclear envelope
And no organelles
Have multiple linear chromosomes
Have a nuclear envelope
And have organelles
What are some ways that prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ
Cell membrane pinches inward leaving membranous internal vesicles.
These vesicles become associated with metabolic processes giving rise to organelles.
What is the autogenous hypothesis of eukaryote evolution?
Created the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes hypothesis
Who was Lynn margulis
Eukaryotes that could use oxygen to make ATP were eaten by ones that couldn't.
What is the endosymbiotic hypothesis of eukaryotes ?
1. Chloroplast and mitochondrion have two membranes.
2. They have their own chromosomes
3. They have ribosomes similar to prokaryotes
4. Reproduction is like prokaryotes, by fission
What is the evidence that supports the endosymbiotic hypothesis of eukaryotes?
What characteristics do all plants share?
The process by which cells become specialized for different functions.
An x shaped chromosome
What does DNA replicate during the S Phase ?
All new cells form in structures called meristems.
How do plants make new cells?
Tissues consisting of one type of cell
Tissues consisting of more than more type of cell
Aggregates of tissues that share a common function
What are the tissue systems?
Photosynthesis and housekeeping
Functions of the ground tissue system
Provides a barrier to separate the inside of the plant from the outside
Prevents water loss
Allows gas exchange
Functions of the dermal tissue system
Transports water, minerals, and sugars
Functions of the vascular tissue system
What tissues and cells compose the ground tissue system
Sclerenchyma cells that are not elongated and do not occur in rope like bundles.
What tissues and cells compose the dermal tissue system
The outer most layer of cells on a plant
A waxy external coating that prevents water loss
Holes or tiny pores
Hairs that are on plants to prevent herbivory
What tissues and cells compose the vascular tissue system ?
Simple tissues composed of cells called treachery elements
Simple tissues composed of cells called vessel elements
Cells that form connections with more than two other cells.
Sieve tube elements
Cells that form connections with only two other cells
Prevents water loss
What is the function of the cuticle ?
Persistent embryonic tissues allow plants to produce new organs throughout a life cycle
How are organs formed in the primary meristems?
Where are primary meristems found?
Growth controlled by meristems
What are the organs of the plant body?
Have leaves with paralleled veins and flowers have 3 or 6 parts
Have leaves with branching veins and flowers have 4-5 or many parts
What are some differences of monocots and dicots
Anchors the plant
Absorbs water and nutrients
What are the primary functions of a root
Monocots: xylem at the center looks like a ring shape
Dicots: xylem at the center has an x shape
How do the roots of monocots and dicots differ ?
What are the zones of growth in the plant root?
A botanist is studying the growth rings of a redwood tree. She notices that three concentric rings are very thin compared to the surrounding growth rings. What can she deduce from the occurrence of these thin growth rings?
what are fungi a sister group to?
Which group of protists has a yellowish photosynthetic pigment and a shoe-box like cell wall that contains silica?
The evolution of diatoms, based on gene sequences, suggests that centric diatoms evolved before pennate diatoms. What does the fossil record show?
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