BIO 2 Super Quiz 1

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In fungi, karyogamy may not immediately follow plasmogamy, which
creates dikaryotic cells.
A streptobacillus kind of prokaryote that __________.
consists of rod-shaped cells in chains
Which taxonomic group containing eukaryotic organisms is believed to be ancestral to the plant kingdom?
Chlorophyta
Heterotrophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally and absorb the small molecules are referred to as
fungi.
Which one of the following best describes the general mode of action of a virus?
The viral genome "takes over" the host cell's metabolic machinery.
What is the name given to viruses that are single-stranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis?
retroviruses
What is the threadlike basic structural element of a fungus?
hyphae
Which of the following is characteristic of the lytic cycle?
A) A large number of virus particles are released at a time.
Which one of the following is NOT used to identify different kinds of bacteria?
number of chromosomes
Fungi are found associated with the earliest plant fossils. Which of the following is a way in which fungi may have helped plants become terrestrial?
by forming mycorrhizal associations and helping early plants to extract mineral nutrients from hostile soils
The antibiotics known as penicillins inhibit the ability of bacteria to
synthesize cell walls.
Gilled mushrooms typically available in supermarkets have meiotically produced spores located in or on ____ & belong to the division ____.
basidia; Basidiomycota
The AIDS virus uses which one of the following to read RNA and synthesize the corresponding DNA?
reverse transcription
Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about the dinoflagellates?
Their fossil remains form limestone deposits.
Which of the following represents a difference between viruses and viroids?
Viruses have capsids composed of protein, whereas viroids have no capsids.
When a lysogenic phage infects a bacterial cell, all of the following happen EXCEPT _____.
the cell is immediately lysed by the invasion
A streptobacillus kind of prokaryote that __________.
consists of rod-shaped cells in chains
What are prions?
misfolded versions of normal central nervous system protein
1) a virus moves a piece of DNA from one organism to another
2) one bacterium sends a single strand of a plasmid through a sex pilus into another bacterium
3) bacteria take-up either linear DNA or a plasmid from the outside enviroment
4) a ciliate exchanges DNA with another ciliate before new macronuclei are formed
1) transduction
2) conjugation
3) transformation
4) conjugation
Which of the following do all fungi have in common?
absorption of nutrients
Which of the following is not a member of the Domain Bacteria?
methanogens
According to the endosymbiotic hypothesis, chloroplasts of land plants are most likely the descendants of
photosynthetic prokaryotes
The chief use of the algal product algin is as a(n)____.
thickener in processed foods
Which taxonomic group containing eukaryotic organisms is believed to be ancestral to the plant kingdom?
Chlorophyta
Which one of the following organisms is commercially harvested to extract algin from their cell walls?
phaeophytes (brown algae)
Prokaryotes _______ eukaryotes.
are approximately 10 times smaller than
Lichens are symbiotic communities consisting of fungi and
both green algae and cyanobacteria
Though plants, fungi, and prokaryotes all have cell walls, we place them in different taxa. Which of these observations comes closest to explaining the basis for placing these organisms in different taxa, well before relevant data from molecular systematics became available?
D)Their cell walls are composed of very different biochemicals.
Lichens are symbiotic communities consisting of fungi and
both green algae and cyanobacteria
Why do biologists who study lichens sometimes refer to the symbiotic relationship between fungus and alga as controlled parasitism?
Fungal haustoria may kill algal cells, but at a pace slow enough not to destroy all the algae present.
Prokaryotic ribosomes differ from those present in eukaryotic cytosol. Because of this, which of the following is correct?
E) Some selective antibiotics can block protein synthesis of bacteria without effects on protein synthesis in the eukaryotic host.
Which one of the following descriptions of the term is incorrect?
bacillus = bent or folded
Which of the following is/are a function of prokaryotic cell walls?
All of the choices are functions of prokaryotic cell walls.
Pathogenic bacteria found in many hospitals are antibiotic resistant. This is a result of
directional selection
In fungi, karyogamy may not immediately follow plasmogamy, which
creates dikaryotic cells.
Unlike archaea, bacterial cell walls contain a unique substance called
peptidoglycan
Prokaryotes have ribosomes different from those of eukaryotes. Because of this, which of the following is TRUE?
Some selective antibiotics can block protein synthesis of bacteria without harming the eukaryotic host.
The largest seaweeds belong to which group?
Phaenophyta
Which of the following characteristics is not shared by both chytrids and other kinds of fungi?
flagellated zoospores
All of the following are TRUE statements about prokaryotes EXCEPT:
Prokaryotes are the most important photosynthesizers
Bacteria that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia are called _____.
nitrogen fixers
What are prions?
C) misfolded versions of normal central nervous system protein
Which of the following is/are a function of prokaryotic cell walls?
All of the choices are functions of prokaryotic cell walls.
Which of the following series best reflects what we know about how the flu virus moves between species?
A) An animal such as a pig is infected with more than one virus, genetic recombination occurs, the new virus mutates and is passed to a new species such as a bird, the virus mutates and can be transmitted to humans.
Which one of the following is NOT used to identify different kinds of bacteria?
number of chromosomes
Which one of the following organisms is commercially harvested to extract algin from their cell walls?
phaeophytes (brown algae)
What is the name given to viruses that are single-stranded RNA that acts as a template for DNA synthesis?
retroviruses
Pathogenic bacteria found in many hospitals are antibiotic resistant. This is a result of
directional selection
The body of a fungus is made of a network of filaments called
mycelium
Which of the following traits do archaeans and bacteria share?

(1) composition of the cell wall
(2) presence of plasma membrane
(3) lack of a nuclear envelope
(4) identical rRNA sequence
E) 2 and 3
(2) presence of plasma membrane
(3) lack of nuclear envelope
Which of the following is a difference between bacteria and archaea?
Only bacteria have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
In what ways are all protists alike?
They are all eukaryotic.
Cyanobacteria
are the prokaryotes with plant-like oxygen-generating photosynthesis.
In which of the following ways are prokaryotes more successful on Earth than humans?
All of these choices are reasons that prokaryotes are more successful than humans
Prokaryotes are classified into
Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea.
Gram-negative bacteria have ________ peptidoglycan than gram-positive cells, and their cell walls and membranes are _________ complex structurally.
less more
Each response may be used once, more than once or not at all

1) This division produces two kinds of haploid spores, one kind being asexually produced conidia, the other kind found in a sack-like structure.
2) This division contains the mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs, and stinkhorns.
3) This division has coenocytic hyphae and has no flagellated stages
4) This division is primarily aquatic and has flagellated stages
5) This division is common in lichens, and includes truffles, and morels
1) Ascomycota
2) Basidiomycota
3) Zygomycota
4) Chytridiomycota
5) Ascomycota
What does transformation involve in bacteria?
the uptake of DNA from an outside source (DNA may be in plasmid form or not)
Which of the following includes unicellular, colonial, and multicellular members?
Chlorophyta only
Many members of the red algae are adapted to deeper water because _____.
their photosynthetic pigments efficiently absorb blue light that reaches grater water depth.
Agar is a complex carbohydrate used in gelatin capsules and also in cooking. It is derived from cell walls of _____.
rhodophytes
Which one of the following groups of organisms has had a greater impact on the environment and on biological evolution than all other forms of life combined?
prokaryotes
The nucleic acid of a virus is enclosed in a protein coat known as a(n) _____
capsid
Which of the following structures, if any, does not help prokaryotes stick to their substrate or each other?
flagella
Which of the following organisms first gave Earth its oxygen-containing atmosphere?
cyanobacteria
The kingdom Protista causes dissatisfaction among taxonomists mainly because
various pieces of evidence indicate that the Protista are not monophyletic
Which of these groups is characterized by cells that have more than one nucleus?
ciliates
A virus that attacks a bacterium is a ____
phage
Which one of the following statements is FALSE?
Prokaryotic ribosomes are identical to eukaryotic ribosomes.
In an aerobic prokaryotic cell, the molecules of aerobic respiration are located in the
plasma membrane
Which one of the following causes food poisoning and typhoid fever?
Salmonella
Bacteria that ____________ tend to have abundant, internal inpocketings of the plasma membrane.
are phototosynthetic
Which one of the following statements about prokaryotes is false?
Prokaryotes are genetically very similar.
Chemoautotrophic bacteria obtain their carbon and energy from which of the following sources?
carbon from CO2; energy from certain inorganic chemicals
Which of these groups includes species that produce a nerve agent toxic to humans?
dinoflagellates
Choose: transduction, conjugation, transformation

A virus moves a piece of DNA from one organism to another
conjugation
Choose: transduction, conjugation, transformation

A virus moves a piece of DNA from one organism to another
transduction
Choose: transduction, conjugation, transformation

One bacterium sends a single strand of a plasmid through a sex pilus into another bacterium
conjugation
Choose: transduction, conjugation, transformation

Bacteria take-up either linear DNA or a plasmid from the outside environment
transformation
Choose: ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota, chytridiomycota

This division produces two kinds of haploid spores, one kind being asexually produced conidia, the other kind found in a sack-like structure.
ascomycota
Choose: ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota, chytridiomycota

This division contains the mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs, and stinkhorns.
basidiomycota
Choose: ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota, chytridiomycota

This division has coenocytic hyphae and has no flagellated stages
zygomycota
Choose: ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota, chytridiomycota

This division is primarily aquatic and has flagellated stages
chytridiomycota
Choose: ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota, chytridiomycota

This division is common in lichens, and includes truffles, and morels
ascomycota
The largest seaweeds belong to which group?
Phaeophyta
Which of the following characteristics is not shared by both chytrids and other kinds of fungi?
flagellated zoospores
Cyanobacteria
are the prokaryotes with plant-like oxygen-generating photosynthesis.
Which of the following do all fungi have in common?
absorption of nutrients
Which one of the following statements is FALSE?
Prokaryotic ribosomes are identical to eukaryotic ribosomes.
According to the endosymbiont theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate?
a cell engulfed, originally free-living prokaryotes
The AIDS virus uses which one of the following to read RNA and synthesize the corresponding DNA?
reverse transcription
What is the threadlike basic structural element of a fungus?
hyphae
Fungi are found associated with the earliest plant fossils. Which of the following is a way in which fungi may have helped plants become terrestrial?
by forming mycorrhizal associations and helping early plants to extract mineral nutrients from hostile soils
Which taxonomic group containing eukaryotic organisms is believed to be ancestral to the plant kingdom?
Chlorophyta
Lichens are symbiotic communities consisting of fungi and
both green algae and cyanobacteria
Which of the following statements is CORRECT about gram-negative bacteria?
They often possess an outer cell membrane containing toxic lipopolysaccharides.
Which one of the following statements about prokaryotes is false?
Prokaryotes are genetically very similar.
Prokaryotic ribosomes differ from those present in eukaryotic cytosol. Because of this, which of the following is correct?
E) Some selective antibiotics can block protein synthesis of bacteria without effects on protein synthesis in the eukaryotic host.
Which one of the following is not a member of the Domain Bacteria?
methanogens
When a lysogenic phage infects a bacterial cell, all of the following happen EXCEPT _____.
the cell is immediately lysed by the invasion
Pairs of rod-shaped bacteria are called
diplobacilli.
Bacteria that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia are called _____
nitrogen fixers
Though plants, fungi, and prokaryotes all have cell walls, we place them in different taxa. Which of these observations comes closest to explaining the basis for placing these organisms in different taxa, well before relevant data from molecular systematics became available?
D)Their cell walls are composed of very different biochemicals.
____ are naked strands of RNA and ____ are infectious protein particles
Viroids... prions
Evidence for the closer relationship of archaea to eukaryotes than archaea to bacteria includes all of the following except
the presence of peptidoglycan in the cell wall.
Which of the following organisms are common soil inhabitants and grow in the form of a filamentous mass of branching cell chains that superficially resembles a fungus?
actinomycetes
Both Penicillium and Aspergillus produce asexual spores at the tips of the
conidiophores
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