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Secondary II Math Common Core
Terms in this set (59)
A collection of all possible outcomes of a random experiment.
A function defined on a sample space.
Having limits or bounds
limitless or unbounded
Individually separate and distinct
Forming an unbroken whole; without interruption
a set that is part of a larger set
something that results
When ALL outcomes of two events are considered. (NOTICE: problems use the word "OR"). Symbol is U.
When only the coutcomes shared by two events are considered.
(NOTICE: problems use the word "AND"). Symbol is ∩.
Set A and Set (A bar) such that "A bar" consists of all outcomes that are NOT in "A". Symbols:
the probability of two events occurring together
something that happens at a given place and time
Probability of Independent Events
The outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the second event with this formula: P(A and B) = P(A) * P(B).
A diagram that uses circles to display elements of different sets. Overlapping circles show common elements.
Two-way Frequency Table
A table that shows the frequencies of data from a survey or experiment according to two categories. The rows show one category and the columns show another.
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes if all outcomes have the same chance of happening.
the probability that an event will occur given that one or more other events have occurred
The values in the margins of a joint probability table that provide the probabilities of each event separately.
Diagrams that will show P(A) as independent branches, then P(B|A) as branches coming off those branches, etc. until a final event is reached. The probability of any one event occurring can be calculated by multiplying the probabilities of each branch along the way.
Uniform Probability Model
each outocme is equally as likely to occur so P (A)= number of outcomes in A / number of outcomes in Sample ( A / S ).
P(A and B)=P(A∩B)=P(A)P(B|A)=P(B)P(A|B)
P(A or B) =P(AUB)=P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B)
Means the probability of event B occurring when A has already occurred.
an event made of two or more events that occur at the same time or one right after the other (counting principle).
If one event can happen M ways and another event can happen N ways then the two events can happen in MN ways (multiply).
an arrangement of objects in which order IS important
the act of arranging elements into specified groups without regard to order
by chance, not planned or prearranged; irregular
Random number tables
used to select random samples.
Random Number Generator
A program that returns numbers chosen at random from a predesignated interval.
free from bias
the frequency and extent to which multiple measures of behavior yield different outcomes
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Disjoint (or mutually exclusive)
two events that have no outcomes in common (intersection is empty).
The union or intersection of two events.
Two events that have one or more outcomes in common: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B)
Probability of Complement of an Event
Complement of "A" is P(A bar) = 1 - P(A)
the branch of pure mathematics that deals with the nature and relations of sets
A collection of distinct objects which is denoted by enclosing its elements in braces.
Element or member
Each object in a set.
A set with NO elements which is denoted by a 0 with a / through it.
The set of ALL elements under consideration which is denoted by U.
Probability of Dependent Events
If A and B are dependent events, then the probability that both A and B occur is: P(A and B) = P(A)* P(B|A).
Two events A and B, where occurrence of one affects the occurrence of the other.
Two events A and B, where the occurrence of one has no effect on the occurrence of the other.
The probability that B will occur given that A has occurred, which is written: P(B|A).
Three or more Dependent Events
Extension of finding probabilities of dependent events: P( A and B and C) = P(A)
P(C|A and B).
A function that gives the probability of each possible value of a random variable and the sum of all those probabilities in the distribution must equal 1.
The product of all positive integers less than or equal to a number (5! = 5x4x3x2x1).
A permutation formula when there are n distinct object.
P(n,r) = n! / (n - r)!
A permutation formula when there are n distinct objects taken "r" at a time.
C(n,r) = n! / (n - r)! * r!
A combination formula when "r" objects taken from a group of "n" distinct objects.
is based on repeated trials of an experiment or # of Successes / # of Trials.
Odds in Favor
# of Favorable Outcomes / # of Unfavorable Outcomes.
# of Unfavorable Outcomes / # of Favorable Outcomes.
An experiment that you can perform to make predictions about real-world situations.
is results from intuitive, educated guesses, and/or estimates.
Recommended textbook explanations
Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Keying E. Ye, Raymond H. Myers, Ronald E. Walpole
Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Student Solutions Manual for Devore/Berk's Modern Mathematical Statistics with Applications
Jay L. Devore, Kenneth N. Berk
Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences
Jay L. Devore
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