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What is DNA made of?

5 carbon sugar called dioxyribose, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.

What is nucleotides made of?

Four kind of bases in DNA

Adenine guanine cytosine thymine

Sugar and phospate groups of each nucleotide

What is the backbone of DNA formed by?


What order can nucleotides be in?

Rosalind Franklin

used X-Ray diffraction to get info about the structure of Dna

she aimed an X-ray beam at concentrated DNA
Recorded the scattering pattern of x-rays on film

What did RF do to get info about DNA?

James Watson and Francis Crick

Who built a model that explained how DNA carried information and could be copied using RF's clues from her pattern.

Can only form between base pairs

What did Watson and discover about hydrogen bonds?

base pairing

What is the A-T G-C Chargraph

half base pairing

Each strand of DNA double helix has all the info needed to reconstruct the other ____ by the process of _______

both directions

In eukaryotic chromosomes DNA replication occurs at hundreds of places in _______until each chromosome is copied.

replication forks

The sites where replication and separation occur are called enzymes control thisb


When the DNA strand unwinds what happens to the hydrogen bonds?

DNA polymerase

Principle enzyme in DNA replication


DNA polymerase joins individual what according to the base pairing rules to produce a DNA molecule

proof reads

An enzyme then _____ each DNA strand

Protein synthesis

uses genes in the cell as code to make proteins for body.


DNA is assited by RNA in the making of ______

the sugar in RNA ribose instead of deoxyribose

RNA is single stranded

RNA contains Uracil instead of Thymine

Can move around the cell

4 different structures in RNA


Carries the coded message from the DNA to the rest of the
cell (mollies)

ribosomal RNA

makes up ribosomes (us)


Transfers amino acids to the ribosomes


ase means what?

DNA and DNA strand

RNA polymerase binds to which two things?


Since there are 4 different base letters and combine in combos of 3 then there are how many possible codons


How many amino acids in a Genetic Code


There fore some amino acids are coded by what codon


What is always the start condon?


Changes in the genetic material

point mutation

Involves changes in 1 or few nucleotides, occur at a single point in the DNA sequenc
Usually in form of a substitution.

frame shift mutation

Insertion or deletion of a nucleotide, causes the entire chain to shift since the bases are read in sets of three.
Bigger issue

chromosomal mutations

involves in the change and number of the entire chromosome

4 Deletion, duplication, translocation inversion

how many types of chromosomal mutations name them


most mutations are _____they happen all the time no big impact

Genetic variability

Mutations are the source of what and can cause beneficial changes

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