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36 terms

Biology Chapter 12

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nucleotides
What is DNA made of?
5 carbon sugar called dioxyribose, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
What is nucleotides made of?
Four kind of bases in DNA
Adenine guanine cytosine thymine
Sugar and phospate groups of each nucleotide
What is the backbone of DNA formed by?
Any
What order can nucleotides be in?
Rosalind Franklin
used X-Ray diffraction to get info about the structure of Dna
she aimed an X-ray beam at concentrated DNA
Recorded the scattering pattern of x-rays on film
What did RF do to get info about DNA?
James Watson and Francis Crick
Who built a model that explained how DNA carried information and could be copied using RF's clues from her pattern.
Can only form between base pairs
What did Watson and discover about hydrogen bonds?
base pairing
What is the A-T G-C Chargraph
half base pairing
Each strand of DNA double helix has all the info needed to reconstruct the other ____ by the process of _______
both directions
In eukaryotic chromosomes DNA replication occurs at hundreds of places in _______until each chromosome is copied.
replication forks
The sites where replication and separation occur are called enzymes control thisb
broken
When the DNA strand unwinds what happens to the hydrogen bonds?
DNA polymerase
Principle enzyme in DNA replication
nucleotides
DNA polymerase joins individual what according to the base pairing rules to produce a DNA molecule
proof reads
An enzyme then _____ each DNA strand
Protein synthesis
uses genes in the cell as code to make proteins for body.
proteins
DNA is assited by RNA in the making of ______
the sugar in RNA ribose instead of deoxyribose

RNA is single stranded

RNA contains Uracil instead of Thymine

Can move around the cell
4 different structures in RNA
mRNA
Carries the coded message from the DNA to the rest of the
cell (mollies)
ribosomal RNA
makes up ribosomes (us)
tRNA
Transfers amino acids to the ribosomes
enyzme
ase means what?
DNA and DNA strand
RNA polymerase binds to which two things?
64
Since there are 4 different base letters and combine in combos of 3 then there are how many possible codons
20
How many amino acids in a Genetic Code
AUCG
There fore some amino acids are coded by what codon
AUG
What is always the start condon?
mutation
Changes in the genetic material
point mutation
Involves changes in 1 or few nucleotides, occur at a single point in the DNA sequenc
Usually in form of a substitution.
frame shift mutation
Insertion or deletion of a nucleotide, causes the entire chain to shift since the bases are read in sets of three.
Bigger issue
chromosomal mutations
involves in the change and number of the entire chromosome
4 Deletion, duplication, translocation inversion
how many types of chromosomal mutations name them
neutral
most mutations are _____they happen all the time no big impact
Genetic variability
Mutations are the source of what and can cause beneficial changes