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Small Animal Diseases and Medical Care - Transmission and Development of Infectious Diseases

Transmission and Development of Infectious Diseases ~VETT113 Small Animal Diseases and Medical Care San Juan College Veterinary Technician
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Infectious disease
occurs when a microorganism in the body multiplies and causes damage to the tissues.
Pathogens
The microorganisms that cause infectious diseases
Endogenous
Diseases caused by microorganisms that are normally present on or in the body without causing harm, but something happens that allows them to express their disease-producing potential.
Exogenous
Disease is caused by microorganisms that are not normally present on or in the body but contaminate the body from the outside.
Toxigenic diseases
Can cause disease without entering and multiplying in the body.
Can occur after organisms have multiplied on food that has been consumed. (food poisoning)
Universal precautions
the need to treat blood and other body fluids from all patients as potentially infectious
Standard precautions
to consider blood, all body fluids, including secretions and excretions (except sweat), nonintact skin, and mucous membranes as potentially infectious in all patients.
Incubation stage
the period from the initial entrance of the infectious agent into the body to the time when the first symptoms of the disease appear.
Prodromal stage
involves the appearance of early symptoms.
Micr. just enough to cause first symptoms (malaise)
Acute stage
When symptoms of the disease are maximal and the person is obviously ill.
Convalescent stage
the recovery phase. micr. number is declining. symptoms lessen
indirect contact
can result from injuries with contaminated sharps, and contact with contaminated instruments, equipment, surfaces, and hands.
Droplet infection
this mode encompasses large-particle droplet spatter >5mm that is transmitted by close contact
prevent infection with PPE
Airbrone infection
involves small particles(aka droplet nuclei or aerosol particles) <5mm
PPE cannot prevent all infections
Infection
multiplication and survival of micr. on or in the body
Inhalation
Micr. can enter through breathing aerosol particles generated from use of phrphylaxis angle
Ingestion
Swallowing droplets of saliva/blood splatter into the mouth
Host defense mechanisms
defense against harmful infections are either innate defenses or acquired defenses
innate defenses
are always active
acquired defenses
must be stimulated to become active
Long term immunity
The body remembers and organism and can respond rapidly to destroy it before it can damage the body
artificial immunity
Through immunization or vaccination.
Host Risk Factors
certain conditions that can predispose an animal to disease: Age, gender, race, ethnic background
Communicable diseases
diseases than can be transmitted to other people; (aka) contagious diseases and community-acquired diseases
Contagious diseases
A sickness that is can be passed from one person to another as germs are spread by touch or through the air.
Biological vector
disease-carrying organism, such as a rat, mosquito, or fly, that spreads infectious disease
Localized infection
occurs when microbe enters the body and is confined to a specific area
systemic infection
microbe spreads throughout the body usually in the bloodstream
Disease
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
recovery phase
the period of time during which the patient begins to fight the infection and decrease the number of microbes in the body
Asymptomatic Infection
infection where signs and symptoms are not present
iatrogenic disease
disease caused unintentionally by medical therapy
idiopathic disease
Disease of unknown cause
chronic infection
infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years
nonsocomial infection
is an infection acquired after admission to a health care facility
latent infection
Infection that is not currently active but could reactivate at a later time.
microbe
an organism invisible to the naked eye, especially one that causes disease
virulence
The strength or ability of a pathogen to produce disease.
etiology
study of the cause of disease
carrier
a person, animal, or plant that harbors and transmits the causative agent of an infectious disease; especially : one who carries the causative agent systemically but is asymptomatic or immune to it
host
An organism infected by another organisim
reservoir host
an organism in which a parasite that is pathogenic for some other species lives and multiplies without damaging its host; also
susceptible host
having little resistance to a specific infectious disease : capable of being infected
transmission of disease
an act, process, or instance of transmitting
vectors
organism that does not itself cause disease but serves to transmit an infectious organism from one host to another.
fomites
inanimate object (not living) that can become contaminated with a pathogen which can then be carried to a susceptible host.
direct contact
most common ways that infectious disease organisms are transmitted. A susceptible animal comes into contact with the infected animal and the microbe is transferred via contact with body fluids / secretions / skin / fur
transplacental
relating to, involving, or being passage (as of an antibody) between mother and fetus through the placenta
mucous membranes
a membrane rich in mucous glands; specifically : one that lines body passages and cavities which communicate directly or indirectly with the exterior
neoplasia / neoplasm
a new growth of tissue serving no physiological function : tumor
exposure
he fact or condition of being exposed: as a : the condition of being unprotected
differential diagnosis
the distinguishing of a disease or condition from others presenting similar symptoms