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1. Organism consist of one or more cells
2. The cell is the smallest unit of organization that displays the properties of life
3. Continuity of life arises directly from the growth and division of single cells

Cell Theory

aerobic respiration

Cellular respiration that uses oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP

allopatric speciation

physical barriers stop gene flow among populations or subpopulations of a species. Interbreeding will no longer be possible in the offspring.

anaerobic respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen

analogous structures

serve the same function, but are not from the same "stem" body part


An organism that makes its own food

biological species concept

a species is one or more group of individual that interbreed, produce fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such groups


the part of earth where life exists

Black people have more of this than white people



Highly reactive and prone to electron transfers


makes carbonyl reactive, when combined with amino and fatty acids


organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions


a lineage splits when one or more of its population become reproductively isolated and diverse genetically

disruptive selection

natural selection that favors individuals with either extreme of a trait


class of proteins that cause metabolic reactions to proceed faster

evolution occurs in this unit of life


fluid mosaic model

every cell membrane has a mixed composition of phospolipids

formula used to find the frequency of genotypes in a population in which there are two alleles

hardy-weing formula

fundamental niche

The full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species.


organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer


Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

homeotic gene

guide the formation of tissues and organs into orderly patterns

hom many chromosomes do humans have?


how is spectral karyotyping done?

a range of dyes is used that bind to specific parts of chromosomes

how many atoms can carbon covalently bond with?


how many sex chromosomes do humans have?


how much of freshwater is used for agriculture



breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the traits of both organisms


split molecules at specific groups, then attach one -OH group with an H atom at the exposed sites

the individual at both ends of a population are selected against

Stabilizing selection

In what type of species is gene swapping rampant?

prokaryotic species

isolating mechanism

Any factor that acts to reduce or block the flow of genes between two populations

is the cell membrane fluid, solid, or gaseous?



Evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing the origin of new taxonomic groups, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, and mass extinction.


evolution on the smallest scale—a generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles within a population

mitochondrial DNA

A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only through the mother.

molecular clock

calibrated by the determination of the number of differences in DNA base sequences or Amino Acid sequences between species being plotted against a series of branch points


individual subunits of a larger molecule

morphological convergence

dissimilar body parts evolved in similar ways but were in evolutionary distant lineages

morphological divergence

change from the body form of a common ancestor

new species definition

a species is defined by its physical, structural, and functional traits that sets them apart from other species

nitrogen cycle

the circulation of nitrogen

nucleic acid hybridization

the process of base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule


small sacs bounded to membranes that divide the interior of eukaryotic cells into functional compartments

peppered moths in polluted forests are an example of this

directional selection

physiological traits

includes metabolic activities that help the body function in the environment

piece of dna on a chromosome



the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water


consist of three to millions of subunits

realized niche

the range of resources and conditions a species actually uses or can tolerate at optimal efficiency; smaller than fundamental niche


Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.

sedimentary cycles combined with the hydologic cycle move what?

move most mineral through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

shorterm adaptation

adaptation that lasts only as long as the individual organisms does (plants in windy places)


The process by which a new species evolves from a prior species, the most basic process in macroevolution.

specific spot of a gene on a chromosome

gene locus

This number results from meiosis reducing the parental chromosome number by half

haploid number


link between the nucleotide sequence of nucleic acids and the amino acids sequence


any region where precipitation flows into a single stream or river

what are adenine and guanine?


What are codons?

triplets in which mRNAs bases are read, when docked at a ribosome.

what are homologous chromosomes

two chromosomes that are similar in height, shape, and genetic material

What are molecules assmebled from?

cellular pools of sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides

what are the names for evolutionary tree diagrams?


what are the only groups of prokaryotic cells?

archaens and bacteria

what are thymine and cytosine?


What at hydro carbons?

three gases that consist only of carbon and hydrogen (methane, ethane, and ethylene)

What caused the great dying

sudden spike of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

what did Rosalind Franklin discover?

the structure and dimensions of DNA

what do all cells start out with?

plasma membrane, a region of DNA, and a cytoplasm

what does adenine pair with in DNA to RNA transfer?


what does meiosis begin with? end with?

diploid cells, haploid cells

what does mitosis begin with? end with?

diploid cells, diploid cells

What does the Krebs Cycle consist of?

Enzymes break down pyruvate to carbon dioxide and water. These reactions may release many electrons and hydrogen atoms

what elements could have played a role in the evolution of primates?

alu elements

what gene is associated specifically with males?


what is a eukaryon?

highly organized nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane, characteristic of higher organisms

what is a monophyletic group?

included only the descendants from an ancestral species in which a unique feature first evolved

what is phylogeny?

the scientific study of evolutionary relationships

What is somatic cell nuclear transfer?

when descendants of a stem cell, used for therapeutic cloning go on to differentiate into cell types of specific organs and tissues

What is the backbone of DN?


What is the cause of Turner syndrome

a girl is given only one x chromosome

what is the endocytic pathway?

cells absorb molecules by engulfing them

What is the inside of DNa consist of?


What is the Ozone a buildup of?

Oxygen added to the atmosphere by autotrophs performing photosynthesis

what was thought to hold hereditary material befor DNA discovered?


where does carbon cycling occur?

between the ocean and the atmosphere

where is eukaryotic dna enclosed?


where is prokaryotic DNA concentrated?


Where is the correspondence between genes and proteins encoded?

In mRNA transcripts

Who was Rosalind Franklin neglected by?

Maurice Wilkins

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